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Introducing Philosophy

A Text with Integrated Readings, International Edition, Tenth edition

Tenth Edition

Robert C. Solomon, Clancy Martin, and Kathleen M. Higgins

August 2012

ISBN: 9780199764846

640 pages
Paperback
254x203mm

Price: £39.99

Combines exceptionally clear explanations with excerpts of works from Western philosophy and alternative perspectives

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Description

Introducing Philosophy: A Text with Integrated Readings, Tenth Edition is a thorough introduction to the core problems of philosophy, including explanations and background by the authors along with generous excerpts from the philosophers under discussion. Organized topically, the chapters present alternative perspectives-including analytic, continental, feminist, and non-Western viewpoints-alongside the historical works of major philosophers. The text provides the course materials that allow instructors and students to focus on a variety of philosophical problems and perspectives. Spanning 2,500 years, the selections range from the oldest known fragments to cutting-edge contemporary essays.

  • Generous excerpts from significant works in philosophy, along with insightful explanatory material by the authors—a real hybrid textbook
  • Includes alternative perspectives-including analytic, continental, feminist, and non-Western viewpoints
  • Clear and engaging writing by the authors

New to this edition

  • Key terms highlighted in the text and collected at the end of each chapter
  • Marginal quotations from famous philosophers that keep the student engaged and focused
  • Questions for further consideration at the end of every subsection, and additional chapter review questions at the end of each chapter
  • Bibliographies and further reading offered at the end of each chapter
  • A glossary of the most important and widely-used philosophical terms at the end of the book
  • Over 100 brief profiles of philosophers interspersed throughout the text

About the Author(s)

Robert C. Solomon, Deceased, Professor of Philosophy, University of Texas, Austin, Clancy Martin, Professor of Philosophy, University of Missouri - Kansas City, and Kathleen M. Higgins, Professor of Philosophy, University of Texas at Austin

Robert C. Solomon, deceased, was a Professor of Philosophy at the University of Texas, Austin. Clancy Martin is a Professor of Philosophy at the University of Missouri - Kansas City. Kathleen M. Higgins is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Texas, Austin.

Table of Contents

    List of Philosopher Biographies
    Preface
    Timeline
    INTRODUCTION
    A. Socrates
    Aristophanes, from The Clouds
    Plato, from The Apology
    Plato, from The Crito
    Plato, from The Phaedo
    Plato, from The Republic
    B. What Is Philosophy?
    Plato, from The Apology
    Karl Jaspers, from "The 'Axial Period'"
    Laozi, from Tao Te Ching
    C. A Modern Approach to Philosophy
    René Descartes, from Discourse on Method
    D. A Brief Introduction to Logic
    Key Terms
    Bibliography and Further Reading
    PART ONE: THE WORLD AND BEYOND
    1 Religion:
    A. What Is Religion?
    John Wisdom, from "Gods"
    Albert Einstein, on the Design of the Universe
    Keiji Nishitani, from "What Is Religion?"
    B. The Western Religions
    C. Proving God: The Ontological Argument
    St. Anselm, on the Ontological Argument
    René Descartes, on the Ontological Argument
    Immanuel Kant, Against the Ontological Argument
    D. God as Creator: Intelligence and Design
    St. Thomas Aquinas, on the Cosmological Argument
    William Paley, "The Teleological Argument"
    St. Thomas Aquinas, on the "Fifth Way"
    David Hume, from Dialogues on Natural Religion
    E. Religion, Morality, and Evil
    Immanuel Kant, on God and Morality
    William James, from "The Will to Believe"
    St. Augustine, from Confessions
    From Bhagavadg?t?
    F. Beyond Reason: Faith and Irrationality
    Mohammad al-Ghazali, from The Deliverance from Error
    Søren Kierkegaard, on Subjective Truth
    Paul Tillich, on the Ultimate Concern
    G. Doubts about Religion
    Fyodor Dostoyevski, from The Brothers Karamazov
    Karl Marx, from Critique of Hegel' Philosophy of Right
    Friedrich Nietzsche, from Beyond Good and Evil
    Friedrich Nietzsche, from The Antichrist
    Friedrich Nietzsche, from The Gay Science
    Sigmund Freud, from The Future of an Illusion
    Summary and Conclusion
    Chapter Review Questions
    Key Terms
    Bibliography and Further Reading
    2 Reality:
    A. "The Way the World Really Is"
    Aristotle, from Metaphysic
    B. The First Greek Philosophers
    Parmenides, from Fragments
    C. Ultimate Reality in the East: India, Persia, and China
    From Upanishads
    From Zend-Avesta
    Confucius, from The Analects
    Laozi, from Dao-De-Jing
    Buddha, from "Fire-Sermon"
    D. Two Kinds of Metaphysics: Plato and Aristotle
    Plato, from The Symposium
    Plato, from The Republic
    Plato, from The Meno
    Aristotle, from Metaphysics
    Aristotle, from Physics
    Aristotle, from Metaphysics
    E. Modern Metaphysics
    René Descartes, on Substance
    René Descartes, from "Meditation VI"
    John Locke, From An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
    Benedictus de Spinoza, from Ethics
    Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, from Monadology
    Martin Heidegger, from "The Fundamental Questions of Metaphysics"
    Summary and Conclusion
    Chapter Review Questions
    Key Terms
    Bibliography and Further Reading
    3 Knowledge:
    Bertrand Russell, from The Problems of Philosophy
    Plato, from Theatetus
    A. The Rationalist's Confidence: Descartes
    René Descartes, from "Meditation I"
    René Descartes, from "Meditation II"
    René Descartes, from "Meditation VI"
    B. Innate Ideas Concerning Human Understanding: John Locke
    John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
    Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, from New Essays on Human Understanding
    C. Two Empiricist Theories of Knowledge
    John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
    Bishop George Berkeley, from Treatise Concerning the
    D. The Congenial Skeptic: David Hume
    David Hume, from A Treatise of Human Nature
    David Hume, from An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
    E. Kant's Revolution
    Immanuel Kant, from The Critique of Pure Reason
    Immanuel Kant, from Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics
    F. The Battle in Europe After Kant: Relativism and Absolutism
    G. W. F. Hegel, from The Phenomenology of Spirit
    G. W. F. Hegel, from Reason in History
    Arthur Schopenhauer, from The World as Will and Representation
    Friedrich Nietzsche, on Truth
    G. Phenomenology
    Edmund Husserl, from "Philosophy as Rigorous Science"
    Edmund Husserl, from The 1929 Paris Lectures
    H. Hermeneutics and Pragmatism: Relativism Reconsidered
    Richard Rorty, from "Solidarity or Objectivity?"
    Isamu
    I. The Analytic Turn
    Bertrand Russell, from The Problem of Philosophy
    W. O. Quine, from "Epistemology Naturalized"
    J. Feminist Epistemology
    Elizabeth Grosz, on Feminist Knowledge
    Uma Narayan, on Feminist Epistemology
    Summary and Conclusion
    Chapter Review Questions
    Key Terms
    Bibliography and Further Reading
    PART TWO: KNOW THYSELF
    4 Self:
    A. Consciousness and the Self: From Descartes to Kant
    René Descartes, from "Meditation VI"
    John Locke, on Personal Identity
    David Hume, on "There Is No Self"
    Immanuel Kant, Against the Soul
    Meredith Michaels, on "Personal Identity"
    B. Existentialism: Self-Identity and the Responsibility of Choice
    Jean-Paul Sartre, on Existentialism
    Jean-Paul Sartre, on Bad Faith
    Jean-Paul Sartre, from No Exit
    C. The Individual and the Community
    Søren Kierkegaard, on "The Public"
    Søren Kierkegaard, on Self and Passion
    Martin Heidegger, on "Dasein" and the "They"
    Malcolm X, on Being "African"
    Malcolm X, from "At the Audubon"
    Sherry Ortner, from "Is Female to Male as Nature Is to Culture?"
    Ann Ferguson, on Androgyny
    D. One Self? Any Self? Questioning the Concept of Personal "Essence"
    Hermann Hesse, from Steppenwolf
    Luce Irigaray, from This Sex Which Is Not One
    Genevieve Lloyd, from "The Man of Reason"
    From The Dhammapada
    Laozi, from Dao-De-Jing
    Summary and Conclusion
    Chapter Review Questions
    Key Terms
    Bibliography and Further Reading
    5 Mind and Body:
    A. What Is Consciousness?
    René Descartes, from "Meditation VI"
    René Descartes, from "Meditation III"
    B. The Problem of Dualism
    René Descartes, from "The Passions of the Soul"
    C. The Rejection of Dualism
    Gilbert Ryle, from The Concept of Mind
    J. J. C. Smart, from "Sensations and Brain Processes"
    Jerome Shaffer, Against the Identity Theory
    Paul M. Churchland, on Eliminative Materialism
    David Braddon-Mitchell and Frank Jackson, from Philosophy of Mind and Cognition
    John R. Searle, from "The Myth of the Computer"
    John R. Searle, from Minds, Brains, and Science
    D. The Problem of Consciousness
    Sigmund Freud, on the "Unconscious"
    Thomas Nagel, from Mortal Questions
    Colin McGinn, on "The Mystery of Consciousness"
    Aristotle, from De Anima
    Galen Strawson, on "Cognitive Experience"
    William James, from "Does Consciousness Exist?"
    Friedrich Nietzsche, on the "Genius of the Species"
    Summary and Conclusion
    Chapter Review Questions
    Key Terms
    Bibliography and Further Reading
    6 Freedom:
    A. Fatalism and Karma
    Sophocles, from Oedipus the King
    Keiji Nishitani, on Fate
    B. Predestination
    St. Augustine, from On Free Choice of the Will
    Mohammad Iqbal, from The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam
    Jacqueline Trimier, on the Yoruba Ori
    Jonathan Edwards, from "Freedom of the Will"
    C. Determinism 402
    Baron Paul Henri d'Holbach, from System of Nature
    Daniel Dennett, from Elbow Room
    Robert Kane, on Indeterminism
    John Stuart Mill, on Causation and Necessity
    David Hume, on Causation and Character
    Robert Kane, on "Wiggle Room"
    Harry Frankfurt, from "Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person"
    D. Compulsion and Ignorance
    Aristotle, on Voluntary Action
    Judith Orr, "Sex, Ignorance, and Freedom"
    John Hospers, from "What Means This Freedom?"
    B. F. Skinner, Beyond Freedom
    B. F. Skinner, from Walden Two
    Robert Kane, Beyond Skinner
    Anthony Burgess, from A Clockwork Orange
    Catherine MacKinnon, on Coercion of Women's Sexuality
    E. Freedom in Practice 441
    F. Radical Freedom: Existentialism
    Jean-Paul Sartre, on "Absolute Freedom"
    Fyodor
    Thich Nhat Hanh, from "Turning on the Television"
    Summary and Conclusion
    Chapter Review Questions
    Key Terms
    Bibliography and Further Reading
    PART THREE: THE GOOD AND THE RIGHT
    7 Ethics:
    A. Morality
    B. Is Morality Relative?
    Gilbert Harman, from "Moral Relativism Defended"
    St. Thomas Aquinas, from the Summa Theologica
    John Corvino, from Same Sex: Debating the Ethics, Science, and Culture of Homosexuality
    C. Egoism and Altruism
    Plato, from The Republic
    D. Are We Naturally Selfish? A Debate
    Mencius, on Human Nature: Man Is Good
    Xunzi, from "Human Nature Is Evil"
    Joseph Butler, Against Egoism
    E. Morality as Virtue: Aristotle
    Aristotle, from The Nicomachean Ethics
    F. Morality and Sentiment: Hume and Rousseau
    David Hume, on "Reason as Slave of the Passions"
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau, from Emile
    G. Morality and Practical Reason: Kant
    Immanuel Kant, from Fundamental Principles of the
    H. Utilitarianism
    Jeremy Bentham, from An Introduction to the Principles of
    John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism
    I. The Creation of Morality: Nietzsche and Existentialism
    Friedrich Nietzsche, on "Morality as Herd-Instinct"
    Friedrich Nietzsche, on "Master and Slave Morality"
    Jean-Paul Sartre, from Existentialism as a Humanism
    J. Pragmatism in Ethics
    John Dewey, from The Quest for Certainty
    K. Ethics and Gender
    Virginia Held, on Feminist Ethics
    Summary and Conclusion
    Chapter Review Questions
    Key Terms
    Bibliography and Further Reading
    8 Justice:
    A. The Problem of Justice
    B. Two Ancient Theories of Justice: Plato and Aristotle
    Plato, from The Republic
    Aristotle, from The Nicomachean Ethics
    C. Two Modern Theories of Justice: Hume and Mill on Utility and Rights
    David Hume, on "Justice and Utility"
    John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism
    D. The Social Contract
    Thomas Hobbes, from Leviathan
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau, from The Social Contract
    Thomas Jefferson et al., from The Declaration of Independence
    E. Fairness and Entitlement
    John Rawls, from "Justice as Fairness"
    Robert Nozick, from Anarchy, State, and Utopia
    F. Justice or Care: A Feminist Perspective
    Cheshire Calhoun, from "Justice, Care, Gender Bias"
    G. Individual Rights and Freedom
    John Locke, from The Second Treatise on Government
    John Stuart Mill, from On Liberty
    Malcom X, on Civil and Human Rights
    Amarta Sen, from "Property and Hunger"
    H. Fighting for Rights and Justice: Civil Disobedience
    Henry David Thoreau, on "Civil Disobedience"
    Martin Luther King, Jr., "Letter from Birmingham Jail"
    Summary and Conclusion
    Chapter Review Questions
    Key Terms
    Bibliography and Further Reading
    Glossary
    Index

Additional Resources

The Instructor's Manual on CD and Companion Website for students and instructors (www.oup.com/us/solomon ) that accompany this text have been fully revised to correspond to the changes in this new edition. The Instructor's Manual includes chapter summaries and goals; section summaries; a Test Bank that includes multiple choice, essay, true/false, and fill-in-the-blank questions; lecture outlines; and downloadable PowerPoint presentations. The Companion Website includes all the material from the Instructor's Manual, along with the following student resources: chapter overviews; chapter goals; interactive flash cards with key terms and definitions; discussion and essay questions; topical weblinks and activities; self-quizzes that give students the opportunity to test what they have learned; and suggestions for further reading.