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Cover

Elements of Power Electronics

Second Edition

Dr. Philip Krein

October 2015

ISBN: 9780199388424

816 pages
Paperback
235x191mm

In Stock

Price: £63.99

The most up-to-date power electronics text available, now in a streamlined second edition with strong alternative energy coverage and expanded examples.

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Description

Elements of Power Electronics establishes a fundamental engineering basis for power electronics analysis, design, and implementation, offering broad and in-depth coverage of basic material. Streamlined throughout to reflect new innovations in technology, the second international edition also features updates on renewable and alternative energy.

Models for real devices and components - including capacitors, inductors, wire connections, and power semiconductors - are developed in depth, while newly expanded examples show students how to use tools like Mathcad, Matlab, and Mathematica to aid in the analysis and design of conversion circuits.

About the Author(s)

Dr. Philip Krein, Professor, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Philip T. Krein holds the Grainger Endowed Chair in Electric Machinery and Electromechanics as Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is a past president of the IEEE Power Electronics Society, and holds twenty-eight U.S. patents, with additional patents pending.

Table of Contents

    CHAPTER 1 — POWER ELECTRONICS AND THE ENERGY REVOLUTION
    1.1 The energy basis of electrical engineering
    1.2 What is power electronics?
    1.3 The need for electrical conversion
    1.4 History
    1.4.1 Rectifiers and the diode
    1.4.2 Inverters and power transistors
    1.4.3 Motor drive applications
    1.4.4 Power supplies and dc-dc conversion
    1.4.5 Alternative energy processing
    1.4.6 The energy future: Power electronics as a revolution
    1.4.7 Summary and future developments
    1.5 Goals and methods of electrical conversion
    1.5.1 The basic objectives
    1.5.2 The efficiency objective — the switch
    1.5.3 The reliability objective — simplicity and integration
    1.5.4 Important variables and notation
    1.6 Energy analysis of switching power converters
    1.6.1 Conservation of energy over time
    1.6.2 Energy flows and action in dc-dc converters
    1.6.3 Energy flows and action in rectifiers
    1.7 Power electronics applications: a universal energy enabler
    1.7.1 Solar energy architectures
    1.7.2 Wind energy architectures
    1.7.3 Tide and wave architectures
    1.7.4 Electric transportation architectures
    1.8 Recap
    1.9 Problems
    1.10 References
    CHAPTER 2 — SWITCHING CONVERSION AND ANALYSIS
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Combining conventional circuits and switches
    2.2.1 Organizing a converter to focus on switches
    2.2.2 Configuration-based analysis
    2.2.3 The switch matrix as a design tool
    2.3 The reality of Kirchhoff's Laws
    2.3.1 The challenge of switching violations
    2.3.2 Interconnection of voltage and current sources
    2.3.3 Short-term and long-term violations
    2.3.4 Interpretation of average inductor voltage and capacitor current
    2.3.5 Source conversion
    2.4 Switching functions and applications
    2.5 Overview of switching devices
    2.5.1 Real switches
    2.5.2 The restricted switch
    2.5.3 Typical devices and their functions
    2.6 Methods for diode switch circuits
    2.7 Control of converters based on switch action
    2.8 Equivalent source methods
    2.9 Simulation
    2.10 Summary and recap
    2.11 Problems
    2.12 References
    PART II: CONVERTERS AND APPLICATIONS
    CHAPTER 3 — DC-DC CONVERTERS
    3.1 The importance of dc-dc conversion
    3.2 Why not voltage dividers?
    3.3 Linear regulators
    3.3.1 Regulator circuits
    3.3.2 Regulation measures
    3.4 Direct dc-dc converters and filters
    3.4.1 The buck converter
    3.4.2 The boost converter
    3.4.3 Power filter design
    3.4.4 Discontinuous modes and critical inductance
    3.5 Indirect dc-dc converters
    3.5.1 The buck-boost converter
    3.5.2 The boost-buck converter
    3.5.3 The flyback converter
    3.5.4 SEPIC, zeta, and other indirect converters
    3.5.5 Power filters in indirect converters
    3.5.6 Discontinuous modes in indirect converters
    3.6 Forward converters and isolation
    3.6.1 Basic transformer operation
    3.6.2 General considerations in forward converters
    3.6.3 Catch-winding forward converter
    3.6.4 Forward converters with ac links
    3.6.5 Boost-derived (current-fed) forward converters
    3.7 Bidirectional converters
    3.8 Dc-dc converter design issues and examples
    3.8.1 The high-side switch challenge
    3.8.2 Limitations of resistive and forward drops
    3.8.3 Regulation
    3.8.4 A solar interface converter
    3.8.5 Electric truck interface converter
    3.8.6 Telecommunications power supply
    3.9 Application discussion
    3.10 Recap
    3.11 Problems
    3.12 References
    CHAPTER 4 — RECTIFIERS AND SWITCHED CAPACITOR CIRCUITS
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Rectifier overview
    4.3 The classical rectifier — operation and analysis
    4.4 Phase controlled rectifiers
    4.4.1 The uncontrolled case.
    4.4.2 Controlled bridge and midpoint rectifiers
    4.4.3 The polyphase bridge rectifier
    4.4.4 Power filtering in rectifiers
    4.4.5 Discontinuous mode operation
    4.5 Active rectifiers
    4.5.1 Boost rectifier
    4.5.2 Discontinuous mode flyback and related converters as active rectifiers
    4.5.3 Polyphase active rectifiers
    4.6 Switched-capacitor converters
    4.6.1 Charge exchange between capacitors
    4.6.2 Capacitors and switch matrices
    4.6.3 Doublers and voltage multipliers
    4.7 Voltage and current doublers
    4.8 Converter design examples
    4.8.1 Wind-power rectifier
    4.8.2 Power system control and HVDC
    4.8.3 Solid-state lighting
    4.8.4 Vehicle active battery charger
    4.9 Application discussion
    4.10 Recap
    4.11 Problems
    4.12 References
    CHAPTER 5 — INVERTERS
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Inverter considerations
    5.3 Voltage-sourced inverters and control
    5.4 Pulse-width modulation
    5.4.1 Introduction
    5.4.2 Creating PWM waveforms
    5.4.3 Drawbacks of PWM
    5.4.4 Multi-level PWM
    5.4.5 Inverter input current under PWM
    5.5 Three-phase inverters and space vector modulation
    5.6 Current-sourced inverters
    5.7 Filters and inverters
    5.8 Inverter design examples
    5.8.1 Solar power interface
    5.8.2 Uninterruptible power supply
    5.8.3 Electric vehicle high-performance drive
    5.9 Application discussion
    5.10 Recap
    5.11 Problems
    5.12 References
    PART III: REAL COMPONENTS AND THEIR EFFECTS
    CHAPTER 6 — REAL SOURCES AND LOADS
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Real loads
    6.2.1 Quasi-steady loads
    6.2.2 Transient loads
    6.2.3 Coping with load variation — dynamic regulation
    6.3 Wire inductance
    6.4 Critical values and examples
    6.5 Interfaces for real sources
    6.5.1 Impedance behavior of sources
    6.5.2 Interfaces for dc sources
    6.5.3 Interfaces for ac sources
    6.6 Source characteristics of batteries
    6.6.1 Lead-acid cells
    6.6.2 Nickel batteries
    6.6.3 Lithium-ion batteries
    6.6.4 Basis for comparison
    6.7 Source characteristics of fuel cells and solar cells
    6.7.1 Fuel cells
    6.7.2 Solar cells
    6.8 Design examples
    6.8.1 Wind farm interconnection problems
    6.8.2 Bypass capacitor benefits
    6.8.3 Interface for a boost PFC active rectifier
    6.8.4 Lithium-ion battery charger for a small portable device
    6.9 Application discussion
    6.10 Recap
    6.11 Problems
    6.12 References
    CHAPTER 7 — CAPACITORS AND RESISTORS
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Capacitors — types and equivalent circuits
    7.2.1 Major types
    7.2.2 Equivalent circuit
    7.2.3 Impedance behavior
    7.2.4 Simple dielectric types and materials
    7.2.5 Electrolytics
    7.2.6 Double-layer capacitors
    7.3 Effects of ESR
    7.4 Effects of ESL
    7.5 Wire resistance
    7.5.1 Wire sizing
    7.5.2 Traces and busbar
    7.5.3 Temperature and frequency effects
    7.6 Resistors
    7.7 Design examples
    7.7.1 Single-phase inverter energy
    7.7.2 Paralleling capacitors in a low-voltage dc-dc converter
    7.7.3 Resistance management in a heat lamp application
    7.8 Application discussion
    7.9 Recap
    7.10 Problems
    7.11 References
    CHAPTER 8 — CONCEPTS OF MAGNETICS FOR POWER ELECTRONICS
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Maxwell's equations with magnetic approximations
    8.3 Materials and properties
    8.4 Magnetic circuits
    8.4.1 The circuit analogy
    8.4.2 Inductance
    8.4.3 Ideal and real transformers
    8.5 The hysteresis loop and losses
    8.6 Saturation as a design constraint
    8.6.1 Saturation limits
    8.6.2 General design considerations
    8.7 Design examples
    8.7.1 Core materials and geometries
    8.7.2 Additional discussion of transformers
    8.7.3 Hybrid car boost inductor
    8.7.4 Building-integrated solar energy converter
    8.7.5 Isolated converter for small satellite application
    8.8 Application discussion
    8.9 Recap
    8.10 Problems
    8.11 References
    CHAPTER 9 — POWER SEMICONDUCTORS IN CONVERTERS
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Switching device states
    9.3 Static models
    9.4 Switch energy losses and examples
    9.4.1 General analysis of losses
    9.4.2 Losses during commutation
    9.4.3 Examples
    9.5 Simple heat transfer models for power semiconductors
    9.6 The PN junction as a power device
    9.7 PN junction diodes and alternatives
    9.8 The thyristor family
    9.9 Field-effect transistors
    9.10 Insulated-gate bipolar transistors
    9.11 Integrated gate-commutated thyristors and combination devices
    9.12 Impact of compound and wide bandgap semiconductors
    9.13 Snubbers
    9.13.1 Introduction
    9.13.2 Lossy turn-off snubbers
    9.13.3 Lossy turn-on snubbers
    9.13.4 Combined and lossless snubbers
    9.14 Design examples
    9.14.1 Boost converter for disk drive
    9.14.2 Loss estimation for electric vehicle inverter
    9.14.3 Extreme performance devices
    9.15 Application discussion
    9.16 Recap
    9.17 Problems
    9.18 References
    CHAPTER 10 — INTERFACING WITH POWER SEMICONDUCTORS
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Gate drives
    10.2.1 Overview
    10.2.2 Voltage-controlled gates
    10.2.3 Pulsed-current gates
    10.2.4 Gate turn-off thyristors
    10.3 Isolation and high-side switching
    10.4 P-channel applications and shoot-through
    10.5 Sensors for power electronic switches
    10.5.1 Resistive sensing
    10.5.2 Integrating sensing functions with the gate drive
    10.5.3 Noncontact sensing
    10.6 Design examples
    10.6.1 Gate consideration on dc-dc-based battery charger
    10.6.2 Gate drive impedance requirements
    10.6.3 Hall sensor accuracy interpretation
    10.7 Application discussion
    10.8 Recap
    10.9 Problems
    10.10 References
    PART IV: CONTROL ASPECTS
    CHAPTER 11 — OVERVIEW OF FEEDBACK CONTROL FOR CONVERTERS
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 The regulation and control problem
    11.2.1 Introduction
    11.2.2 Defining the regulation problem
    11.2.3 The control problem
    11.3 Review of feedback control principles
    11.3.1 Open-loop and closed-loop control
    11.3.2 Block diagrams
    11.3.3 System gain and Laplace transforms
    11.3.4 Transient response and frequency domain
    11.3.5 Stability
    11.4 Converter models for feedback
    11.4.1 Basic converter dynamics
    11.4.2 Fast switching models
    11.4.3 Piecewise-linear models
    11.4.4 Discrete-time models
    11.5 Voltage-mode and current-mode controls for dc-dc converters
    11.5.1 Voltage-mode control
    11.5.2 Current-mode control
    11.5.3 Sensorless current mode and flux controls
    11.5.4 Large-signal issues in voltage-mode and current-mode control
    11.6 Comparator-based controls for rectifier systems
    11.7 Proportional and proportional-integral control applications
    11.8 Design examples
    11.8.1 Voltage mode control and performance
    11.8.2 Feedforward compensation
    11.8.3 Electric vehicle control setup
    11.9 Application discussion
    11.10 Recap
    11.11 Problems
    11.12 References
    CHAPTER 12 — CONTROL MODELING AND DESIGN
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Averaging methods and models
    12.2.1 Formulation of averaged models
    12.2.2 Averaged circuit models
    12.3 Small-signal analysis and linearization
    12.3.1 The need for linear models
    12.3.2 Obtaining linear models
    12.3.3 Generalizing the process
    12.4 Control and control design based on linearization
    12.4.1 Transfer functions
    12.4.2 Control design - Introduction
    12.4.3 Compensation and filtering
    12.4.4 Compensated feedback examples
    12.4.5 Challenges for control design
    12.5 Design examples
    12.5.1 Boost converter control example
    12.5.2 Buck converter design example with current-mode control
    12.5.3 Buck converter with voltage mode control
    12.6 Application discussion
    12.7 Recap
    12.8 Problems
    12.9 References
    PART V: ADVANCED TOPICS
    CHAPTER 13 — AC-AC CONVERSION
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Ac regulators and integral cycle control
    13.2.1 SCR and triac-based ac regulators
    13.2.2 Integral cycle control
    13.3 Frequency matching conditions
    13.4 Matrix converters
    13.4.1 Slow-switching frequency converters: The choice fin - fout
    13.4.2 Unrestricted frequency converters: The choice fswitch = fin + fout
    13.4.3 Unifying the direct switching methods: linear phase modulation
    13.5 The cycloconverter
    13.6 PWM ac-ac conversion
    13.7 Dc link converters
    13.8 Ac link converters
    13.9 Design examples
    13.9.1 Heater control with triac ac regulator
    13.9.2 Matrix converter
    13.9.3 Link converter
    13.10 Application discussion
    13.11 Recap
    13.12 Problems
    13.13 References
    CHAPTER 14 — RESONANCE IN CONVERTERS
    14.1 Introduction
    14.2 Review of resonance
    14.2.1 Characteristic equations
    14.2.2 Step function excitation
    14.2.3 Series resonance
    14.2.4 Parallel resonance
    14.3 Soft switching techniques — introduction
    14.3.1 Soft-switching principles
    14.3.2 Inverter configurations
    14.3.3 Parallel capacitor as a dc-dc soft switching element
    14.4 Soft switching in dc-dc converters
    14.4.1 Description of quasi-resonance
    14.4.2 ZCS transistor action
    14.4.3 ZVS transistor action
    14.5 Resonance used for control — forward converters
    14.6 Design examples
    14.6.1 Limitations of antiresonant filters
    14.6.2 Creating an ac link for a dc-dc converter
    14.6.3 Resonant boost converter for solar application
    14.7 Application discussion
    14.8 Recap
    14.9 Problems
    14.10 References
    CHAPTER 15 — HYSTERESIS AND GEOMETRIC CONTROL FOR POWER CONVERTERS
    15.1 Introduction
    15.2 Hysteresis control
    15.2.1 Definition and basic behavior
    15.2.2 Hysteresis control in dc-dc converters
    15.2.3 Hysteresis power factor correction control
    15.2.4 Inverters
    15.2.5 Design approaches
    15.3 Switching boundary control
    15.3.1 Behavior near a switching boundary
    15.3.2 Possible behavior
    15.3.3 Choosing a switching boundary
    15.4 Frequency control in geometric methods
    15.5 Design examples
    15.5.1 Designing hysteresis controllers
    15.5.2 Switching boundary control combination for battery charging management
    15.5.3 Boost converter with switching boundary control
    15.6 Application discussion
    15.7 Recap
    15.8 Problems
    15.9 References
    APPENDIX
    A. Trigonometric identities
    B. Unit systems
    C. Fourier series
    D. Three-phase circuits
    E. Polyphase graph paper
    INDEX

Reviews

"Elements of Power Elements is a classic text, with modern examples that upgrade its relevance. It is an excellent first book on the subject, but also a reference that I use time and time again." - Robert Balog, Texas A&M University

"This is an essential textbook by a world-class author. Its greatest strength is that it does not compromise on any of the important technical breadth and depth aspects. The revision is timely and enhances some important materials including applications and examples." - Martin Ordonez, University of British Columbia

"This book is the result of years of dedication and hard work by a superb educator. I commend him for his tenacity and attention to detail." - R. Ramakumar, Oklahoma State University