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Trade & Business

Read up on economic factors like trade regulations, and how these will be affected by Brexit.

The 2019 Withdrawal Agreement

On the 17th October 2019, at the European Council, the EU and the UK agreed on the text of the revised Withdrawal Agreement and accompanying Political Declaration. These documents can be downloaded from the Official Journal of the European Union at the link below.


A summary of the Withdrawal Agreement, published by the UK House of Commons Library, can be found here: https://researchbriefings.parliament.uk/ResearchBriefing/Summary/CBP-8713

The Institute for Government sets out its explanation in a useful table format: https://www.instituteforgovernment.org.uk/explainers/brexit-deal-withdrawal-agreement

Steve Peers, in his EU Law Analysis blog, provides four posts analysing elements of the withdrawal Agreement. The first post, an overview, can be accessed at the following link. You will find the other posts listed in the right-hand menu. http://eulawanalysis.blogspot.com/2019/10/analysis-1-of-revised-brexit-withdrawal.html

The UK Parliament approved the Withdrawal Agreement by enacting the European Union (Withdrawal Agreement) Act 2020, on the 23rd January 2020, which can be accessed at the
link below.


From the European Commission: The Draft Withdrawal Agreement

On the 28th February 2018, the European Commission (presented by Michel Barnier, Chief Negotiator) released the Draft Withdrawal Agreement on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community. This 118-page document can downloaded from the link below.


This large document is full of political and legal language, so to help you understand the aims of this document and the potential legal ramifications, take a look at these helpful articles written by experts on the subject:

This https://www.politico.eu/article/brexit-negotiation-withdrawal-text-what-it-says-and-what-it-means/ article explains the meaning of the complex wording referring to each Article, in plain English. Reading through this summary will allow you to understand the terms of the proposal before digging into legal analysis in the further articles linked below.

Here, http://eulawanalysis.blogspot.co.uk/2018/03/ending-limbo-case-for-ring-fencing-eu27.html, Steve Peers explores how the proposal addresses the status of EU27 citizens living in the UK, and UK citizen persons who are living in EU27, before Brexit day, and also discussed the highly controversial topic of the Irish Border.

The Internal Market

Professor Michael Dougan of the University of Liverpool firstly explores the principles and practical functions of an internal market, and then discusses the UK’s plans and vision for the “single market” after leaving the EU. In this clear and concise video, he reflects on the four key points in this debate.

The outlook for the UK and the EU in 2017, and the Withdrawal Bill

The UK, EU, Brexit and International Trade:
Nigel Foster explores the current status of international trade in the EU, and goes on to think about the future status of this following Brexit.


The Government's paper on the future relationship with the EU, including their customs proposal, August 2017

The government’s statement can be found here:

and the paper itself here: