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Elliott & Elliott: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 4e

Chapter 16

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Substrate cycles

Newsholme, E. A., Challiss, R. A. J., and Crabtree, B. (1984). Substrate cycles: their role in improving sensitivity in metabolic control. Trends Biochem. Sci., 9, 277-80 [DOI: 10.1016/0968-0004(84)90165-8].
Describes the regulatory roles of these cycles.

Control of carbohydrate metabolism

Hue, L. and Rider, M. H. (1987). Role of fructose-2, 6-bisphosphate in the control of glycolysis in mammalian tissues. Biochem. J., 245, 313-24.

Kitamura, K., et al. (1989). Purification and characterisation of rat skeletal muscle fructose-6-phosphate, 2-kinase: fructose-2, 6-bisphosphatase. J. Biol. Chem., 264, 9799-806.

Depre, C., Rider, M. H., and Hue, L. (1998). Mechanisms of control of heart glycolysis. Eur. J. Biochem., 258, 277-90 [DOI: 10.1046/j.1432-1327.1998.2580277.x]. Review on mechanisms of control of heart glycolysis under normal and reduced oxygen supply.

Cornish-Bowden, A. and Cardenas, M. L. (1991). Hexokinase and glucokinase in liver metabolism. Trends Biochem. Sci., 16, 281-2 [DOI: 10.1016/0968-0004(91)90115-C].
Discusses briefly a common misconception about these enzymes.

Hardie, D. G. (2000). Metabolic control: A new solution to an old problem. Curr. Biol., 10, R757-9 [DOI: 10.1016/S0960-9822(00)00744-2].

Kemp, B. E., et al. (2003). AMP-activated protein kinase, super metabolic regulator. Biochem. Soc. Trans., 31, 162-8.
Review of the metabolite sensing mechanism found in all eukaryotes which responds to ATP depletion by shutting down ATP-utilizing anabolic pathways and increasing catabolic pathways generating ATP, as well as controlling gene expression.

Carling, D. (2004). The AMP-activated protein kinase cascade - a unifying system for energy control. Trends Biochem. Sci., 29, 18-24 [DOI: 10.1016/j.tibs.2003.11.005].
Review of this downstream component of a protein kinase cascade that acts as an intracellular energy sensor maintaining the energy balance within the cell and whole body.

Jope, R. S. and Johnson, G. V. W. (2004). The glamour and gloom of glycogen synthase kinase-3. Trends Biochem. Sci., 29, 95-102 [DOI: 10.1016/j.tibs.2003.12.004].

GSK. 3 is a key component in a number of cellular processes and diseases. Kahn, B. B. Et al. (2005). AMP-activated protein kinase: ancient energy gauge provides clues to modern understanding of metabolism. Cell Metabolism, 1, 15-24.
A comprehensive review which deals with the importance of AMPK to metabolism in general including obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Witters, L. A., Kemp, B. E., and Means, A. R. (2006). Chutes and ladders: the search for protein kinases that act on AMPK. Trends Biochem. Sci., 31, 13-6 [DOI: 10.1016/j.tibs.2005.11.009].
A review of AMP-activated protein kinase written in terms of a game, more familiar to some as Snakes and Ladders.

Watson, R. T. and Pessin, J. E. (2006). Bridging the gap between insulin signalling and GLUT4 translocation. Trends Biochem. Sci., 31, 215-22 [DOI: 10.1016/j.tibs.2006.02.007].

Control of fat metabolism

McGarry, J. D. and Foster, D. W. (1980). Regulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation and ketone body production. Annu. Rev. Biochem., 49, 395-420 [DOI: 10.1146/annurev.bi.49.070180.002143].
Despite the regulatory title, the article also provides a general review of ketone body formation.

Quant, P. A. (1994). The role of mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase in regulation of ketogenesis. Essays Biochem., 28, 13-25.
Summarizes the control of ketogenesis and the physiological repercussions of the process.

Insulin signal transduction

Cohen, P. (1999). The Croonian Lecture 1998. Identification of a protein kinase cascade of major importance in insulin signal transduction. Phil. Trans. Ser. B, Roy. Society Lond., 354, 485-95.
A readable review of this seminal work.

Alper, J. (2000). New insights into Type 2 diabetes. Science, 289, 37-8 [DOI: 10.1126/science.289.5476.37] [PubMed: 10928926].

Arner, P. (2003). The adipocyte in insulin resistance: key molecules and the impact of thiazolidinediones. Trends Endocr. Metab., 14, 137-45 [DOI: 10.1016/S1043-2760(03)00024-9].
A wide-ranging review relating to obesity and diabetes

Brownsey, R. W., Boone, A. N., Elliott, J. E., Kulpa, J. E., and Lee, W. M. (2005). Regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Biochem. Soc. Trans., 34, 223-7.

Neels, J. G., and Olefsky, J. M. (2006). A new way to burn fat. Science, 312, 1756-8 [DOI: 10.1126/science.1130476] [PubMed: 16794069].
A Science perspective article. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase controls fat storage and utilization in adipose cells. An important regulator of this enzyme modulates its degradation and is a potential therapeutic target for treatment of insulin resistance and obesity.


Bruick, R. K. and McKnight, S. L. (2001). Oxygen sensing gets a second wind. Science, 295, 807-8 [DOI: 10.1126/science.1069825].
Briefly reviews hypoxia response

Kaelin, W. G. (2002). How oxygen makes its presence felt. Genes Dev., 16, 1441-5 [DOI: 10.1101/gad.1003602].
A ?perspective? on hypoxia response

Lando, D., et al. (2002). FIH-1 is an asparaginyl hydroxylase enzyme that regulates the transcriptional activity of hypoxia-inducible factor. Genes Dev., 16, 1466-71 [DOI: 10.1101/gad.991402].

Lando, D., et al. (2002). Asparagine hydroxylation of the HIF transactivation domain: a hypoxia switch. Science, 295, 858-61 [DOI: 10.1126/science.1068592] [PubMed: 11823643].

Metabolic control analysis

Hofmeyr, J.-H. S. and Cornish-Bowden, A. (2000). Regulating the cellular economy of supply and demand. FEBS Lett.. 476, 47-51 [DOI: 10.1016/S0014-5793(00)01668-9] [PubMed: 10878248].
Discusses the (hitherto somewhat ignored) fact that demand is an important control parameter.

Oliver, S. (2002). Demand management in cells. Nature, 418, 33-4 [DOI: 10.1038/418033a] [PubMed: 12097896].
A News and Views article on the importance of product removal in metabolic control.