Roman Republican Augury
Freedom and Control
Lindsay G. Driediger-Murphy
Table of Contents
Texts and Abbreviations
0.1. Of Gods and Men
0.2. Why Now?
0.3. What Is Needed?
0.4. How? Four Guiding Principles
1. Do As I Say, Not As I Do? Report versus Reality in Augury
1.2. Principle 1 in the High and Late Empire: Comments on Signification
1.3. Principle 1 in the High and Late Empire: Claims that Augural Rules Gave Humans the Freedom to Accept or Reject Signs
1.4. Principle 1 in the Middle (and Late) Republic: Claims that Human Awareness of Signs Determined their Validity
1.5. Principle 2 in the Early Principate: The Claim that Augural Rules Gave Humans Freedom to 'Create' Signs by Reporting Them
1.6. Principle 2 in the Late Republic: The Claim that Humans Contrived Auspication so as to Receive Favourable Signs and Avoid Receiving Unfavourable Ones
2. Convenience or Conversation? Why 'Watching the Sky' was More than Wishful Thinking
2.2. What Was Sky-Watching?
2.3. Did Sky-Watching Invariably Produce Signs?
2.4. Was Sky-Watching Technically Sufficient to Prohibit Assemblies?
2.5. Possible Objections: The Timing of Servare de Caelo
2.6. But Would It Actually Work?
Appendix: Ancient References to the Bibulus Affair
3. Out of Control? The Effects of Augury on Roman Public Life
3.2. Motives, Part 1: Cicero, the Augurium Salutis, and the Limits of our Knowledge
3.3. Motives, Part 2: Two Methodological Problems and Two Abdicating Consuls
3.4. Motives, Part 3: The Consul, his Colleague, a Tribune, and Roman Respect for Augury
3.5. The Dynamics of State Divination
3.6. But Did It Really Matter?
3.7. Conclusion: When Signs Said No