This book offers a concise and up-to-date introduction to the popular field of quantum information. It has originated in a series of invited lecture courses at various universities in different countries. This is reflected in its informal style of exposition and presentation of key results in the subject. In addition to treating quantum communication, entanglement and algorithms in great depth, this book also addresses a number of interesting miscellaneous topics, such as Maxwell's demon, Landauer's erasure, the Bekenstein bound, and Caratheodory's treatment of the Second Law of thermodyanmics. All mathematical derivations are based on clear physical pictures which make even the most involved results - such as the Holevo bound - look comprehensible and transparent. The book is ideal as a first introduction to the subject, but may also appeal to the specialist due to its unique presentation.