Consumer Behavior and Insights
Table of Contents
Guided tour of the book xx
Guided tour of the Online Resource Center xxii
PART 1 ESTABLISHING A FRAMEWORK
Chapter 1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES ON CONSUMPTION
BEFORE WE GET STARTED
In the beginning: Early consumption practices
Developing an understanding of consumption
Revolutionary advancements in consumption
Too much consumption?
The evolution of the shopping experience
The rise of the empowered shopper
Behavioral research-a focus on what consumers do
Cognitive research-a focus on how consumers process information
Motivational research-a focus on a consumer's desires and feelings
Motivational research gains a following
Limitations of motivational research
THE RISE OF CONSUMERISM
THE POSTMODERN CONSUMER
CREATING INSIGHTS ABOUT CONSUMERS
Insights from the Field 1.1 A revolution in the kitchen
Insights from the Field 1.2 Status and consuming
Insights from the Field 1.3 Consumers can buy some surprising things from vending machines
Insights from Academia 1.1 When the going gets tough, the tough go shopping for . . .
Insights from Academia 1.2 Why we want busy people around us
Insights from the Boardroom 1 Getting deep insights takes some creativity
Insights from Academia 1.3 So, this is your idea of fun?
Case Study 1 Consumers push for microbead ban
Chapter 2 CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVES OF CONSUMPTION
Value and exchange
Two modes of thinking: automatic and reflective modes
CONSUMER CULTURE THEORY
INNOVATION AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
The socio-cultural context of technology
Types of technological innovations
Adoption of new innovations
The impact on consumption
ONLINE SOCIAL NETWORKS
Insights from Academia 2.1 Pay your taxes on time. Your neighbor did!
Insights from the Field 2.1 Nudging consumers toward healthier decisions
Insights from the Field 2.2 Priming in action
Insights from Academia 2.2 So cute I could eat it up!
Insights from the Boardroom 2 What is the authentic Fiji experience? It depends on who you ask.
Insights from Academia 2.3 How many “likes” can I get for losing five pounds?
Insights from Academia 2.4 Tailgating at the big game
Insights from the Field 2.3 The technologically-empowered customer
Insights from the Field 2.4 Some people are just not “blown away” by wind
Insights from the Field 2.5 LEGO and social networking
Case Study 2 Virtual reality brings consumption closer
Chapter 3 CONSUMER RESEARCH
THE CONSUMER RESEARCH PROCESS
Why conduct consumer research?
Two broad research orientations
Overview of the five-step consumer research process
Identify the problem
Select the perspective
Collect the data
Analyze the data
Develop consumer insights
Create a feedback loop
CONSUMER RESEARCH PERSPECTIVES
Insights from the Field 3.1 Hot dogs, popcorn, or grasshoppers?
Insights from Academia 3.1 Marketers learn more from brains than from people
Insights from the Field 3.2 “We're dog people. Crazy dog people.”
Insights from Academia 3.2 “Obviously, all the cool kids have iPhones”
Insights from Academia 3.3 You saw that, right?
Insights from the Boardroom 3 Sometimes a research projects needs to be tackled with multiple methods
Insights from the Field 3.3 Captain Kirk to Trekkies: Get a life!
Case Study 3 Google Glass
PART 2 CONSUMPTION: A MICRO PERSPECTIVE
Chapter 4 PERCEPTUAL PROCESSES
THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS
Sensation and the perceptual process
Using shock to attract attention
Principle of closure
Principle of similarity
Principle of proximity
Principle of figure and ground
MARKETING AND PERCEPTION
Insights from Academia 4.1 Want to look taller? Wear a bright color!
Insights from Academia 4.2 It's just too pretty!
Insights from the Field 4.1 Spotting your favorite coffee shop
Insights from the Field 4.2 Are you a high need-for-touch consumer?
Insights from the Boardroom 4 Guess who is coming to dinner?
Insights from Academia 4.3 If you could feel or taste the color red, you might just purchase more red stuff!
Insights from the Field 4.3 Step one in selling men's deodorant: attract the attention of women
Insights from Academia 4.4 Don't go shopping after a scary movie!
Insights from the Field 4.4 Repositioning for health and fitness
Insights from Academia 4.5 Would you ever sell your grandma's wedding ring?
Case Study 4 Challenge to all sneakerheads: get the limited-edition Air Jordans and avoid the fakes
Chapter 5 LEARNING AND MEMORY
Organization of long-term memory
RETRIEVAL OF MEMORY
Explicit and implicit memory
Techniques to help memory retrieval
Repetition and spacing
Duration and position
Pictorial and verbal cues
Insights from Academia 5.1 Too much information-I quit!
Insights from the Field 5.1 Matching celebrity endorsers to products
Insights from the Field 5.2 Don't even try it: passing off can land a company in big trouble
Insights from Academia 5.2 To return or not return?
Insights from Academia 5.3 That restaurant always has long lines . . . it must be good!
Insights from Academia 5.4 For green consumption, the type of learning matters!
Insights from the Boardroom 5 What consumers say they're thinking is often quite different from what they're really thinking
Insights from the Field 5.3 Bilingualism and the brain
Insights from Academia 5.5 Your great memory means you are more likely to be bored
Insights from the Field 5.4 Horrible Histories makes learning fun
Insights from Academia 5.6 The trouble with eyewitnesses
Case Study 5 Will consumers accept Vibram's FiveFinger shoe as casualwear?
Chapter 6 PERSONALITY, SELF, AND MOTIVATION
DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES ON PERSONALITY AND SELF
Psychological perspectives on personality
The trait-based view of personality
Brand personality and traits
A social perspective on personality
Multiplicity of self
Personality and self in marketing practice
Consumer identity and corporate values
Needs and wants
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Insights from the Boardroom 6 Don't even think about portraying older Americans as “old”
Insights from Academia 6.1 Brand-aid
Insights from Academia 6.2 Better go now before it's too late
Insights from the Field 6.1 The self in the virtual world
Insights from the Field 6.2 Why don't more men study abroad?
Insights from the Field 6.3 It has never been about the clothing
Insights from Academia 6.3 Going to the movies alone?
Insights from Academia 6.4 Do you have enough self-control to eat kale?
Insights from Academia 6.5 Bring your bag or pay a tax!
Insights from the Field 6.4 Employing qualitative research methods
Case Study 6 Insights into the changing Indian consumer
Chapter 7 ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS
WHAT IS AN ATTITUDE?
THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF ATTITUDES
The tricomponent attitude model
Hierarchy of effects
THE PURPOSE AND ROLE OF ATTITUDES
Balance theory of attitudes
The functional theory of attitudes
THE THREE MAIN THEORIES OF ATTITUDES
The expectancy-value model
The theory of reasoned action
The theory of planned behavior
Compensatory and noncompensatory models
Critique of multiattribute models of attitudes
ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOR CHANGE
Changing the basic motivational function
Altering components of the multiattribute model
Elaboration on the information
Insights from the Field 7.1 Attitudes about consumer credit and debt
Insights from Academia 7.1 Trust your gut
Insights from the Field 7.2 Parents to coaches: No way!
Insights from Academia 7.2 Advice to socially-conscious companies: send stuff, not money
Insights from the Field 7.3 Lowe's responds to attitudes towards home renovations
Executive Insights from the Boardroom 7 Do we live in a melting pot or a salad bowl?
Insights from Academia 7.3 Events are more enjoyable when you wait to post about them
Insights from the Field 7.4 Attitudes toward safe driving
Case Study 7 So, you're thinking about getting your MBA. . .
Chapter 8 DECISION-MAKING AND INVOLVEMENT
Evaluation of alternatives
Satisfaction and attribution assessments
Disposal of goods
Other postpurchase behaviors
INVOLVEMENT AND CONSUMER DECISION-MAKING
The choice context
Other forms of involvement
Increasing customer involvement
Personal motives for shopping
Social motives for shopping
WHEN CHOOSING IS A PROBLEM
Satisficing and maximizing
Anchoring and framing
Insights from Academia 8.1 Do you think you're easily persuaded by advertising?
Insights from the Field 8.1 Consumer decision journeys
Insights from the Field 8.2 To boycott or not to boycott: it depends on your politics
Insights from Academia 8.2 Really? I don't remember that!
Insights from Academia 8.3 Tell me a story!
Insights from the Field 8.3 Using emotions to increase involvement
Insights from the Field 8.4 Identifying the right celebrity endorsers is no easy task
Insights from the Boardroom 8 There is no such thing as a casual hockey fan
Insights from Academia 8.4 Is it possible to be both fashionable and sustainable?
Insights from the Field 8.5 Who are the bargain shoppers? You might be surprised.
Case Study 8 High-involvement soap? Really?
PART 3 CONSUMPTION: A MACRO PERSPECTIVE
Chapter 9 PATTERNS OF BUYER BEHAVIOR
TRACKING BUYER BEHAVIOR
The nature of the market
Explaining why consumers buy
The Pareto principle
The law of buyer moderation
The duplication of purchases principle
INFLUENCING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
Differentiating the brand
Making the brand distinctive
Encouraging greater engagement with the brand
Fostering relationships with the brand
Insights from Academia 9.1 When should apps be free?
Insights from Academia 9.2 Organic consumers, please step forward!
Insights from Academia 9.3 Copycat brands damage national brands
Insights from the Field 9.1 Using consumer panels to explain green consumption
Insights from the Field 9.2 Do consumers buy more soup in the winter?
Insights from the Field 9.3 CEOs behaving badly: Does it change consumer attitudes and behaviors?
Insights from the Boardroom 9 Marketing for the Denver Broncos: easiest job in the National Football League?
Insights from the Field 9.4 This is not your mother's retail store
Insights from the Field 9.5 When higher prices lead to higher sales
Case Study 9 Shopping in China is different than you think
Chapter 10 SOCIAL STRUCTURES AND PROCESSES
Types of reference groups
Reference group influence
Mechanisms of reference group influence
Public versus private consumption
Development of conformity
SOCIAL POWER AND REFERENCE GROUPS
OPINION LEADERS AND OPINION SEEKERS
Opinion leaders and information flow
Trendsetters and coolhunters
WORD OF MOUTH INFLUENCE
Getting to know the power of WOM
Endogenous versus Exogenous
The world is flat
Crowdsourcing and user-generated content
The role of social media
Family structure and roles
Children and advertising
Sociocultural trends and the family
A more multicultural America
More single-parent households
Older first-time parents
Lower birth rates
SOCIAL CLASS AND CONSUMPTION
Insights from Academia 10.1 Are you a Coke or a Pepsi person?
Insights from Academia 10.2 Does your product have a face?
Insights from the Field 10.1 Social media tribes
Insights from the Field 10.2 Have you seen their sushi bar? Word of mouth at Wegmans
Insights from the Field 10.3 Every time you go awayEL
Insights from Academia 10.3 Should we order pizza or Thai tonight?
Insights from the Boardroom 10 It's not the destination, it's the journey
Case Study 10 Tobacco is the only product that, if used correctly, will kill you
Chapter 11 CULTURE
WHAT IS CULTURE?
Culture is learned
The basic characteristics of culture
MAKING SENSE OF CULTURE: MYTHS AND RITUALS
Myths are stories that convey meaning
Rituals are behaviors that reinforce and move meaning
Elements of the ritual
The cultural production system
The cultural system
CLASSIFICATION OF CULTURES
Individualism and collectivism
Multidimensional view of cultural values
Critiques of Hofstede
CULTURE AND CONSUMPTION
Sacred and profane consumption
Sacralization and desacralization
Subcultures based on demographic characteristics
Ethnic and racial subcultures
Subcultures based on gender and gender identity
Subcultures based on consumption communities
Subcultures of consumption
Insights from Academia 11.1 Consumers caught in the middle
Insights from the Field 11.1 Archetypes and myths at the gym
Insights from Academia 11.2 Is graffiti really just a rite of passage?
Insights from Academia 11.3 The branding of the queen
Insights from the Field 11.2 Cultural innovations are opportunities for marketers
Insights from the Field 11.3 Thought about growing a beard?
Insights from the Field 11.4 Lost in translation
Insights from the Boardroom 11 Any road will get you there if you're not sure where you're going
Insights from the Field 11.5 “I will what I want”
Case Study 11 Cultural and subcultural influences at Free People
PART 4 WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE?
Chapter 12 ETHICS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
The common good
The tragedy of the commons
Marketing and the common good
THE CONSUMER CONNECTION
Trends that raise ethical questions or dilemmas
Excessive alcohol consumption
Trends that are a reaction to ethical questions or dilemmas
CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
Using versus not using corporate social responsibility to guide corporate behavior
Do customers really care?
Insights from Academia 12.1 Why do some consumers find an experience exciting and fun, while others find it ethically wrong?
Insights from the Field 12.1 Ubuntu
Insights from Academia 12.2 Brands that lie, cheat, and steal . . . and the consumers who punish them for it
Insights from Academia 12.3 Mom, if you love me, you'll buy this for me!
Insights from the Field 12.2 The Free Hugs Project
Insights from the Field 12.3 Do you recycle in the shower?
Insights from Academia 12.4 Blue is greener than green
Insights from the Field 12.4 Picture a warmer future
Insights from the Boardroom 12 Vanilla gets no respect
Case Study 12 Eliminating the idea of waste
Chapter 13 WHAT'S TRENDING IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
TRENDS IN CONSUMER RESEARCH
Use of new technologies
Continuous data collection
Expansion of research focus
The empowered consumer
The sharing economy
The frugal consumer
Concerns about privacy
Authentic consumption experiences
Insight from Academia 13.1 So, you're thinking about a Pepsi? Yeah, we already knew that.
Insights from the Boardroom 13 Baking “optimization” into a customer's search experience
Insights from the Field 13.1 Netflix knows when a movie is too scary for you to finish
Insights from the Field 13.2 Renting a Rolex
Insights from Academia 13.2 That's so me!
Insights from the Field 13.3 Thinking outside the bottle
Insights from Academia 13.3 New England barbecue? No thanks!
Insights from the Field 13.4 Enhancing visitor engagement with social media
Insights from Academia 13.4 It was almost like I was there!
Case Study 13 Your DNA can help catch a criminal