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400 Pages

6 1/2 x 9 1/4 inches

ISBN: 9780197535790


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Concise Guide to Critical Thinking

Second Edition

Author Lewis Vaughn

  • Six chapters on identifying, evaluating, and devising deductive and inductive arguments
  • A chapter on obstacles to critical thinking
  • Comprehensive coverage of inference to the best explanation
  • Extensive treatment of scientific reasoning, with chapters on inductive reasoning, causal arguments, scientific theories and inference, and scientific method and theory evaluation
  • Emphasis on evaluation of evidence, authority, and credibility
  • A chapter on fallacies and rhetorical persuaders
  • A substantial chapter on writing argumentative essays
  • Numerous exercises, including review questions, exercises for applying critical thinking skills, writing assignments and prompts, and self-assessment quizzes

New to this Edition:

  • A chapter on fake news that shows how to identify fake news, distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate reasons for accepting a claim, assess the reliability of online information by reading laterally, use Google and Wikipedia judiciously, identify and use trustworthy fact-checkers, and understand the ethical implications of sharing fake news
  • Coverage of even more psychological obstacles to critical thinking, including motivated reasoning, the mere exposure effect, the false consensus effect, the illusion-of-truth effect, and the Dunning-Kruger effect
  • A chapter on commercial and political advertising that explains how online targeted advertising works, how political video ads can present false or misleading messages, and why the most insidious and relentless political ads may be the ones that we see on Facebook
  • A revised discussion of how to judge experts, supplemented with a "hierarchy of reliability" chart-a general ranking of trustworthiness for the sources that we rely on for most of our knowledge
  • A new section in Chapter 11: Judging Scientific Theories on how to think critically and scientifically about climate change
  • New material in Chapter 12: Fallacies and Persuaders discusses of the now-prevalent fallacy of whataboutism and provides a checklist of techniques for dealing with online ad hominem attacks

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Arts & Humanities > Philosophy