Climate Change, Science, and The Politics of Shared Sacrifice
Todd Eisenstadt and Stephen MacAvoy
Table of Contents
Climate Change, Science, and the Politics of Shared Sacrifice
Table of Contents
About the authors
Chapter 1: How Humans Tried to Take Control of Nature: From Cuddly "Teddy Bears" to the Anthropogenic Tempest of Climate Change
Humanity has Impacted Climate, Ushering in the Anthropocene Epoch
The Art and Science of Modeling Impacts of Climate Change on Natural Phenomena
Modeling versus measuring natural drivers
Where do We Get the Energy to Tackle Climate Change?
Natural gas as a bridge fuel
Drivers of Natural Climate Change Are Real
Suess Effect: the smoking gun
Technical and Scientific Menas of Addressing Climate Change
Impacts of Climate Change on Human Populations
Climate Change Dilemma: How Do We Stop the "Denialist" Cross-Talk and Buckle Down?
Climate Change Dilemma: Can We Offset (Outsource) Some of this Sacrifice?
Climate Change Dilemma: Equity and Climate Justice Across Countries
Climate Change Dilemma: Equity and Climate Justice Across Generations
Public Goods, the Tragedy of the Commons and the Role of Interests
Where You Come In: Fostering Cooperation from Individuals to Nation-States to the Planet
Exercise 1.1: Making Coffee; Getting to Cooperation
Chapter 2: Learning to Listen to the Earth: The evidence and the scope of the problem
Seasons and Phenological Change
Shifts in migration patterns
Shifting Distribution of Marine Species
Plight of the Pacific walrus
Shifting Terrestrial Climate Zones
Effects on Biodiversity
Effects on Cyclones (Hurricanes)
The Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation
Changing Precipitation Patterns
Sea Level Rise
Effects on Coral Reefs
Effects on Biosphere Vegetation and Soils
1.5 vs 2.0°C Warming: the Meaning of 0.5°C Change
Change at 3°C
Exercise 2.1: Will reforestation efforts make a difference?
Exercise 2.2: Modeling terrestrial carbon storage
Chapter 3: International Relations and Global Climate Politics
The Broader Problem of Climate in International Relations: An Anarchic World or an Ordered One?
Climate Change and Security: From Remote Perceived Link to Admitted Threat-Magnifier
The History of Liberal Institutionalism and Climate Change: The IPCC, Science, and Policy
Getting the Science Right: Importance of the Inter-government Panel on Climate Change
Ideas into Climate Action: The Montreal and Kyoto Protocols
Pros and cons of the Kyoto precedent
Assessing the largest emitters (corporations as well as countries)
The Paris Agreement: Voluntary Nationally-Determined Contributions but Without Needed Ambition
Distributive Dilemma of Climate Change Solutions: Who Should Suffer and Who Should Pay?
Ways of Thinking About Ethics of Who is Responsible and Who Should Pay?
Five logics for allocating emissions blame (and responsibility)
Inadequacy of Paris Agreement to keep warming to 1.5°C (or even 2.0°C?)
We'll Always Have Paris: Overcoming Limitations of the International Climate Change Regime
Exercise 3.1: A United Nations Simulation to Specify Loss and Damage in the Paris Agreement
Case Study 3.1: Ecuador Forest Carbon Sinks, National Governments, and the International Community - Fernando Hernandez
Scenario for Classes
Indigenous Communities, Prior Consultation, and Rainforest Preservation
The Amazon's Riches: Environmental Services and Protecting Ecosystems
The Role of REDD+
REDD+ in Ecuador: The Socio Bosque Program
Critiques of Socio Bosque
What Has Socio Boque Done Right?
Chapter 4: The Domestic Politics of Climate Change: Environmentalists Versus Energy Interests and the Fight for Public Attention
Following the Big Tobacco Model? ExxonMobil and the "Selling" of Climate Change Doubt
Climate Change, the Tragedy of the Commons, and the Problem of Interest Group Pluralism
What Causes Some Nations to Have Better Climate Policies? Low Fossil Fuel Subsidies, Low GHG Emissions, and High Vulnerability
Fossil fuel subsidies
Levels of democracy
The climate leadership vacuum
China as Unlikely Emerging International Leader in Emissions and in Green Economy
Climate Footprint "Foot-Dragging" in India, the "Conscience" of the Developing World
Reconsidering the Sources of Emissions: Evaluating Emissions by Sector (Rather than Country)
Agriculture, Forestry, and Land Use
Conclusions: How Can Domestic Energy Interests be Tamed?
Case Study 4.1: Can State Action Overcome National Inaction on the Emissions-reducing Clean Power Plan? - Laurel Wolf
International Context - What Reductions Need to Be Made?
National Context - What Have We Done (or not)?
Air Pollution Laws and Regulations
Partisan and Bipartisan Efforts to Tackle the Issue
The Clean Power Plan
Montana, The Climate Stakes
Reaction to CPP
Oklahoma and Alabama - the Climate Deniers
Reaction to the CPP
Current Status - Trump and Beyond
Replacing the CPP
Montana Reactions Post-Trump Announcement
New York Reaction Post-Trump
Oklahoma and Alabama Reactions
Can States Take it All the Way?
Chapter 5: Short-term versus Long-term Crude Solutions: Peak Oil, Fracking, the "Natural Gas" Bridge, and the Promise of Renewables
Prospects for Cooling the Earth
Carbon capture before release
Carbon capture and storage
Enhancing natural carbon sinks
Cap and trade and carbon taxes
Fracking and Natural Gas: The Rise of a Bridge Fuel
Electric Power for All: The Rise of Wind and Solar Plus the Changing Face of Biofuels and Hydropower
Present and Future of Hydroelectric Power
Is a Zero-carbon Energy Sector Even Possible?
COVID-19 Energy and Emissions Impacts
Exercise 5.1: United States commitments in The Paris Agreement
Exercise 5.2: Calculating the value of natural gas extraction for property owners
Case Study 5.1 Fracking, Climate Change, and the Regional Economy of Pennsylvania: An Imaginary Debate in the 2022 Governor's Race
Hypothetical but Fact-Based Report of the Blue-Ribbon Commission on Fracking's Future in Pennsylvania
Fracking's Impact on Climate Change
Reducing Methane Leakage
A Bridge to Renewables
Transitioning Directly to Renewables
Local Environmental Risks
Scenario for Classes
Chapter 6: Beyond the Energy Sector: Technological Transformations on the Way to "Decarbonization"
The Concept of "Stranded Oil"
Changing the Energy Grid System
Implementing the Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles and Sustainable Power
Tax Incentives, Externalities and the Market Place
Tax credits for alternatives
LEED Building and Urban Population Density
The Nexus Between Land Use, Climate, and Food
Land Use Change and Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Diet and Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Exercise 6.1: Examining electrical power in the USA
Exercise 6.2: Calculating Hydroelectric power
Chapter 7: The Economics of Carbon Taxes and Emissions Trading, and Who Will Foot the Bill?
Modeling the Financial Costs of “Fixing” Climate Change
The Social Cost of Carbon: The Most Important Number in the Green Economy
The Discount Rate of Uncertainty: A Second Important Number in the Green Economy
Carbon Taxes and ETS as Lynchpins of a Solution
Critiques of ETS: Marketization of Carbon Pricing, but with Offsets and Other Complications
Complications of Carbon Pricing: Transparency, Accountability and "Climate Corruption"
The Debate over the Climate Finance Architecture and its Fragmentation
A Golden Age of Green Technology? New and Improved Energy Sources
The promise of renewables
A revolution in battery storage of energy: cost and capacity
Development of carbon capture and sequestration
Improved prospects for biofuels
Subsidizing New Technologies: Picking Winners Yes, but Greening Growth in the Process
Case Study 7.1: Fiduciary Responsibility, Climate Change, and the University Movement to Divest from Fossil Fuel Holdings - Lillian Frame
The Origin and Meaning of "Fossil Free" Divestment
Tactics Used by The Movement
University Reactions to Fossil Free Movements
The Fossil Free Argument
The Fiduciary Argument
What Changed at American University from 2014 to 2020
Where Does the Movement Go from Here?
Is it Financially Responsible to Divest?
Chapter 8: Fixing Eden: Ratcheting Up Ambition, Deep Decarbonization, and "Plan B"
The Challenges of Acquiring the Adaptation Mindset
The Debate over Measuring and Delivering Adaptation Finance
The scarcity of international funding for adaptation
What happened to the UN pledges for adaptation?
When Adaptation Fails: Legal, Economic, and Political Adjustments for Climate Migrants
The legal debate over migration as "loss and damages"
Does "migration with dignity" justify climate migration?
Climate migration and the North-South Divide
Fossil Fuel Subsidies and The Need for Creative Destruction of that Lobbying System
Thinking Outside the Gas Tank: Fossil Fuel Non-Proliferation Treaty
Can the Courts be Used to Hold Fossil Fuel Companies Responsible for Climate Change?
Can the United Nations be Climate-Proofed?
The Paris Agreement's powerless "pledge and review" status
Climate clubs as more effective international organizations?
The Move to Deep Decarbonization in 2050
Mounting scientific pressures to decarbonize soon
Leaders and laggards and their approaches to decarbonization
Plan B: Geo-engineering, AKA Aerosol Injection and Solar Radiation Management
Ethical and Political pros and cons of geo-engineering
Ecological pros and cons of geo-engineering
Is SRM part of the climate solutions toolbox?
Case Study 8.1: Can A German Utility Company be Sued for Flooding Damages in the Peruvian Andes? Assessing the Evidence of RWE Versus Huaraz - Laurel Wolf
Origins of a David vs. Goliath Climate Litigation Story on Two Continents
Forming of a n Alliance to Stem the Browning of the Cordillera Blanca
Beyond the Andes: Climate Litigation in Global Perspective
Scenario for Classes
Exercise 8.1: Introduction to the Broken Cities Game on Urban Climate
Chapter 9: Sowing Our Gardens is Not Enough: What Can We Do as Citizens and Consumers?
"The Grasping Problem" and What We Can (and Must) Do
Scientist-Policymaker Collaboration: Small Signs of Hope from the World's Most Vulnerable Region
Eat More Plants and Fewer Animals
Flight-Shaming and Bike Lanes: How Mech Must We Reduce Transportation Emissions?
Electric Cars and More Sustainable Cities
Can Mitigation Empower the Poor, Women, and People from the Global South?
Press Politicians and Nation-states and Corporations
We Must Think Big: Plant a Garden, Sure, But Also Empower an International "Climate Squad"
Exercise 9.1: Exploring Your Carbon Footprint