About the Author
PART I: GODDESSES AND GODS
Genealogy of the Greek Gods
Timeline of Classical Mythology
Map: Greece and Greek-Speaking Cities in Anatolia
1. CLASSICAL MYTHS AND CONTEMPORARY QUESTIONS
1.1 What Is a Myth?
Myth, Legend, and Folklore
A Three-Point Definition of a Mythological Corpus
1.2 What Is Classical Mythology?
Myths from Ancient Greece
Myths from the Ancient Near East
Myths from Ancient Rome
1.3 How Do We Make Sense of Classical Myths?
1.4 Why Study Classical Myths in the Twenty-First Century?
2.1 History: A Greek Creation Story
Historical Settings of Hesiod's Theogony
Hesiod's Creation Story: The Theogony
* Hesiod, Theogony
2.2 Theory: The Social World Shapes Myths
* Ivan Strenski, from "Introduction" to Malinowski and the Work of Myth
2.3 Comparison: Levant: Creation Stories
* Genesis 1:1-3:24
2.4 Reception: Titans in Modern Art
Paul Manship, Prometheus, the Light Bringer
Lee Oscar Lawrie, Atlas
3. ZEUS AND HERA
3.1 History: Order and Rebellion
Zeus and Prometheus Bound
* Aeschylus, from Prometheus Bound
3.2 Theory: Universal Questions Shape Myth
Wendy Doniger, from The Implied Spider: Politics and Theology in Myth
3.3 Comparison: Levant: Flood Stories
* Genesis 6-9
3.4 Reception: Leda and the Swan in Modernist Poetry Marie Laurencin, Leda and the Swan
William Butler Yeats, Leda and the Swan
Hilda Doolittle (H.D.), "Leda"
4. DEMETER AND HADES
4.1 History: Life and Death
* Unknown, Hymn 2: To Demeter
4.2 Theory: Myths Reinforce Social Norms
* Helene P. Foley, from "A Question of Origins: Goddess Cults Greek and Modern"
4.3 Comparison (Mesopotamia): A Sumerian Mother Goddess
* Unknown, from In the Desert by the Early Grass
4.4 Reception: Persephone in Contemporary Women's Poetry
* Rita Frances Dove, "The Narcisssus Flower" (1995)
* Rachel Zucker,"Diary [Underworld]" (2003)
* Alison Townsend, "Persephone in America" (2009)
5. APHRODITE, HEPHAESTUS, AND ARES
5.1 History: Love and Strife
Unknown, Hymn 5: To Aphrodite
5.2 Theory: Myths Challenge Social Norms
* John J. Winkler, from "The Laughter of the Oppressed: Demeter and the Gardens of Adonis"
5.3 Comparison: Mesopotamia: Ishtar
* Unknown, The Descent of Ishtar to the Underworld
5.4 Reception: Pygmalion in Hollywood
My Fair Lady
Lars and the Real Girl
6. ATHENA AND POSEIDON
6.1 History: Wisdom and War
Athena's Practical Intelligence and Men's Activities
Athena and the City of Athens
* Aeschylus, from Eumenides
6.2 Theory: The Mind Structures Myth in Oppositions
Simon Goldhill, from Aeschylus: The Oresteia
6.3 Comparison: Egypt: Neith
* Unknown, from "Cosmogonies at the Temple of Esna"
6.4 Reception: Athena as a Political Allegory
Eugene Delacroix "Liberty Leading the People"
François-Charles Morice and Léopold Morice, "The Statute of the Republic"
Emma Lazarus, "The New Colossus"
Frédéric Bartholdi, "The Statue of Liberty"
7. HERMES AND HESTIA
7.1 History: From Herms to Hermes
* Unknown, Hymn 4: To Hermes
7.2 Theory: The Mind Structures Myth in Archetypes
* Lewis Hyde, from Trickster Makes This World: Mischief, Myth and Art
7.3 Comparison: Egypt: Thoth
* Unknown, "The Hymn to Thoth"
* Plato, from Phaedrus
7.4 Reception: Hermaphroditus in Pre-Raphaelite Art
Charles Algernon Swinburne, "Hermaphroditus" (1863)
Edward Burne-Jones, "The Tree of Forgiveness"
Aubrey Beardsley, "A Hermaphrodite amongst the Roses"
8. ARTEMIS AND APOLLO
8.1 History: From Adolescence to Adulthood
* Unknown, Homer, Hymn 3: To Apollo
* Unknown, Homer, Hymn 27: To Artemis
8.2 Theory: Myth, Ritual, and Initiations
Jane Harrison and the Cambridge Ritualists
Arnold van Gennep and Rites of Passage
* Ken Dowden, "Initiation: The Key to Myth?"
8.3 Comparison: Anatolia and Rome: Cybele
Artemis and the Phrygian Great Mother
Artemis in Roman Ephesus
* Xenophon, from An Ephesian Tale
8.4 Reception: Actaeon and Daphne in Contemporary Poetry
Alicia E. Stallings, "Daphne"
Seamus Heaney, "Actaeon"
Don Paterson, "A Call"
9.1 History: Encountering Dionysus
Viticulture, Wine, and Fertility
Theater and Masks
* Euripides, from Bacchae
* Unknown, Hymn 7: To Dionysos
9.2 Theory: Initiations and Inversions
Liminality and Initiation Rituals
Liminality and Dionysus
* Eric Csapo, from "Riding the Phallus for Dionysus: Iconology, Ritual, and Gender-Role De/Construction"
9.3 Comparison: Anatolia and Rome: Cybele and Attis
The Great Mother in Greece
The Great Mother in Rome
* Catullus, "Attis"
9.4 Reception: Dionysus as a God of the 1960s
Dionysus in '69
The Rocky Horror Picture Show
The Bacchae of Euripides: A Communion Rite
PART II: HEROES AND HEROINES
10. ACHILLES: THE MAKING OF A HERO
10.1 History: Defining Greek Heroes
Five Traits of Greek Heroes
Heroes in Cult
Heroes in Myth
* Homer, from the Iliad
10.2 Theory: The Plot of the Hero's Story
* Vladimir Propp, from Morphology of the Folktale
10.3 Comparison: Mesopotamia and Rome: Gilgamesh and Aeneas
Gilgamesh and the Burden of Mortality
Aeneas and the Founding of Rome
* Unknown, from the Epic of Gilgamesh
* Vergil, from Aeneid
10.4 Reception: Achilles and War Poetry
Patrick Shaw-Stewart, "I Saw A Man This Morning"
Randall Jarrell, "When Achilles Fought and Fell"
Michael Longley, "Ceasefire"
Jonathan Shay, from Achilles in Vietnam: Combat Trauma and the Undoing of Character
11. MEDEA: THE MAKING OF A HEROINE
11.1 History: Defining Heroines
Five Traits of Greek Heroines
Heroines in Cult
Heroines in Myth
* Euripides, from Medea
11.2 Theory: The Plot of the Heroine's Story
* Mary Ann Jezewski, from "Traits of the Female Hero: The Application of Raglan's Hero Trait Patterning"
11.3 Comparison: Rome: Medea
* Ovid, from Metamorphoses
11.4 Reception: African American Medea
Countée Cullen, The Medea, and Some Other Poems
Owen Dodson, The Garden of Time
Toni Morrison, Beloved
12. ODYSSEUS AND QUEST HEROES
12.1 History: The Hero's Quest
Defining a Quest Hero
* Homer, from the Odyssey
12.2 Theory: The Quest Hero
Joseph Campbell's Monomyth
Subjective Experience and the External Landscape
W.H. Auden, from "The Quest Hero"
12.3 Comparison: Mesopotamia and Rome: Gilgamesh and Aeneas
Gilgamesh and the Waters of Death
Odysseus in the Underworld
Aeneas in Avernus
* Vergil, from Aeneid
* Unknown, from the Epic of Gilgamesh
12.4 Reception: African American Odysseus
Sterling A. Brown, "Odyssey of Big Boy"
Zora Neale Hurston, Their Eyes Were Watching God
13. IPHIGENIA AND QUEST HEROINES
13.1. History: The Heroine's Quest
Changing Definitions of Heroes and Heroines in Ancient Greece
The New Heroine (and the New Hero)
Iphigenia in Aulis and among the Taurians
* Euripides, from Iphigenia among the Taurians
13.2. Theory: A Paradigm for the New Heroine
Apuleius' Tale of Amor and Psyche
Defining the New Heroine in Anthropology and Literature
Lee R. Edwards, from Psyche as Hero: Female Heroism and Fictional Form
13.3. Comparison: Rome: Thecla
Saints and Martyrs in Early Christian Communities
New Heroines and Martyrs
Thecla as a Christian Heroine
* Unknown, from "The Acts of Paul and Thecla"
13.4 Reception: Ten Years of Iphigenia in New York City
Charles L. Mee's Iphigenia 2.0
Michi Barall's Rescue Me: A Postmodern Classic with Snacks