The general acceptance of plate tectonics and continental drift by the early 1970s galvanized the study of biogeography and our understanding of the origin and evolution of life. However, until now the accumulated information has been widely scattered in the literature. This book is the first to synthesize the results of over two decades of prolific research in a clear, concise format accessible to students of geology, geography, and biology. It will also serve as a valuable resource for teachers of paleontology who are interested in paleobiogeography as well as for geologists needing to know more about the use of fossils in tectonic reconstructions. Introductory chapters deal with the historical background, the major factors influencing the distribution of organisms, methods of biogeographic analysis, and the major events of the Phanerozoic. These are followed by reviews of the changing terrestrial and marine biogeographic patterns, as indicated by the fossil record, and an attempt to explain the patterns observed. A comprehensive bibliography will allow interested readers to pursue material in greater depth.