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Numbered notes

Using numbered notes is a common method of citing sources, particularly in the humanities. Sequential superscript numbers appear in the text to direct the reader to bibliographic or explanatory information that appears in a note.

This is a flexible style that allows authors to combine bibliographic information with annotation, translation, or other commentary. Scholars who frequently cite unpublished material will find numbered notes more useful than author–date citations.

Endnotes or footnotes?

In print publishing, notes can be placed at the bottom of the page as footnotes or at the end of a chapter or book in a separate section as endnotes.

Footnotes are preferred in cases where the information in the note is important enough that readers need it to fully engage with the material. Please note that in a digital context, there may not be a fixed concept of a ‘page’ and so footnotes in the traditional sense may not be possible. Depending on the format, footnotes may appear at the end of a section or chapter; alternatively these may be accessed by clicking or hovering over the superscript numbers in the text to display individual footnotes.

Endnotes are a better choice in print if the material in the notes does not need to be immediately present to the reader. However, their use needs careful consideration for any digital publication where it may be important that the notes appear with the chapter (for example, if a chapter is being sold in isolation) rather than being in a section at the end of the work.

The formatting of bibliographic information is identical for footnotes and endnotes.

In-text citation

Numbered notes appear sequentially in the text as superscripts, ideally at the end of a sentence, following the closing punctuation. Use Arabic numerals. Note numbers should restart at 1 at the beginning of each chapter and run consecutively to the end of each chapter. Do not start renumbering per page or per double-page spread or use asterisks, as this will cause confusion in a non-print environment. Do not number notes continuously throughout a book, as this will necessitate extensive renumbering if a note is added or deleted at a later stage.

Note structure and format

Key bibliographic information. Required bibliographic elements are given below for the most common types of reference citations, along with optional elements which should be used consistently. Other elements below are required if applicable (for example, you need a page number or other locator if you are quoting a precise part of a large work, but you can skip it if the reference is to the work as a whole; edition numbers are not required if you are referring to a first edition but are required for all subsequent editions).

Page numbers are useful locators and are a traditional part of references to print-based materials. Give page ranges in full, rather than abbreviating them. (For example, pp.126-127, not pp.126-27.) When citing an e-book or other digital text, you may not have access to a print page number. In that case, use as specific a locator as you can: you can refer to chapter titles and sub-headings, for example. Do not, however, use location numbers that are particular to a proprietary e-reader, such as the Kindle location numbers.

Authored book

Required elements

Firstname Lastname, Title of Work (Year of Publication).

With optional elements

Firstname Lastname, Title of Work (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication).

With required if applicable elements

Firstname Lastname, Title of Work, 2nd ed. (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication), page number(s) [or alternative locator info].

Michael Murray, Climate Change at the Poles (New York: Scribner, 2007), p. 9.

Darian Ibrahim and Carol Marche, Financing the Next Silicon Valley, 3rd ed. (San Francisco: Upbeat Press, 2010).

Edited book

Required elements

Firstname Lastname, ed., Title of Work (Year of Publication).

With optional elements

Firstname Lastname, eds., Title of Work (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication).

With required if applicable elements

Firstname Lastname, eds., Title of Work, 2nd ed. (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication), page number(s) [or alternative locator info].

Anton Smirov, ed., Eastern Europe After the Iron Curtain (London: Chatto and Windus, 2012).

Chapter in an edited book

Required elements

Firstname Lastname, ‘Title of Chapter in an Edited Volume’, in Title of Edited Volume, edited by Firstname Lastname (Year of Publication).

With optional elements

Firstname Lastname, ‘Title of Chapter in an Edited Volume’, in Title of Edited Volume, edited by Firstname Lastname (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication).

With required if applicable elements

Firstname Lastname, ‘Title of Chapter in an Edited Volume’, in Title of Edited Volume, edited by Firstname Lastname (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication), page number(s) [or alternative locator info].

Hanna Growiszc, ‘Far Right Ideologies in Czech Literature’, in Eastern Europe After the Iron Curtain, edited by Anton Smirov (London: Chatto and Windus, 2012), ch. 7.

Authored book with an editor or translator

Required elements

Firstname Lastname, Title of Work, ed./trans. Firstname Lastname, (Year of Publication).

With optional elements

Firstname Lastname, Title of Work, ed./trans. Firstname Lastname, (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication).

With required if applicable elements

Firstname Lastname, Title of Work, ed./trans. Firstname Lastname, 2nd ed. (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication), page number(s) [or alternative locator info].Günter Grass, The Tin Drum, trans. Breon Mitchell (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2009).

Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, ed. and trans. Terence Irwin (Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1999).

Multi-volume work

Multi-volume book citations can take a variety of forms, depending on whether an individual volume or the work as a whole is being cited, and on how the multi-volume work was authored or edited.

Citing one volume of a multi-volume work

Robert Caro, The Path to Power, vol. 1, The Years of Lyndon Johnson (New York: Knopf, 1982), p. 267.

Citing a multi-volume work as a whole

Robert Caro, The Years of Lyndon Johnson, 4 vols (New York: Knopf, 1982–2012).

Multi-volume work with series editor and individual author/editors

Allison Wyste, ed. Indian and Tibetan Cooking, vol. 6, Cuisines of Asia, ed. Robert Trautmann (London: Brill Books, 2007).

Journal article

Wherever possible, include a DOI (preferred) or a stable URL for citations to journal articles. However, a URL or DOI is not sufficient to stand alone as a reference.

Required elements

Firstname Lastname, ‘Title of Article’, Name of Journal vol. number, (Year): start page.

With optional elements

Firstname Lastname, ‘Title of Article’, Name of Journal vol. number, (Month or Season Year): start page.

With required if applicable elements

Firstname Lastname, ‘Title of Article’, Name of Journal vol. number, issue number (Month or Season Year): start page–end page, doi: XX [or stable URL].

Barbara Eckstein, ‘The Body, the Word, and the State: J. M. Coetzee’s “Waiting for the Barbarians”’, Novel: A Forum on Fiction 22, no. 2 (Winter 1989): pp. 175–198, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1345802.

David Hyun-Su Kim, ‘The Brahmsian Hairpin’, 19th Century Music 36, no. 1 (Summer 2012): pp. 46–47, doi:10.1525/ncm.2012.36.1.046.

Magazine article

A DOI or URL can be included for articles consulted online. Online-only magazines follow the same pattern as print-based magazines, with URLs added. If an online journal or magazine has a stable home page that allows a user to search for articles by title or author, it is acceptable to include only the home page rather than a long URL.

Required elements

‘Title of Article’, Name of Magazine, Month of Pub, Year.

With required if applicable elements

Firstname Lastname, ‘Title of Article’, Name of Magazine, Month and Day of Pub, Year, doi:XX [or URL].

Mary Rose Himler, ‘Religious Books as Best Sellers’, Publishers Weekly, 19 February 1927.

‘Amazon Best Books 2012 Revealed’, Publishers Weekly, 13 November 2012, http://www.publishersweekly.com/pw/by-topic/industry-news/publisher-news/article/54738-amazon-best-books-2012-revealed.html.

Fritz Allhoff, ‘The Paradox of Nonlethal Weapons’, Slate, 13 November 2012, http://www.slate.com.

Law cases

Law citation styles can vary widely depending on jurisdiction. These examples are for citing law cases in a non-specialist academic context. If you are writing specialist legal content, see Citing of Legal Materials for detailed information on law citation.

EU case

Case Number Name of Case [Year] Report VolNo-FirstPageNo

Case C-34/89 P Smith v EC Commission [1993] ECR I-454

UK case

Name of Case [Year] VolNo Report PageNo

Ridge v Baldwin [1964] AC 40, 78

US case

Required elements

Name of Case, VolNo Reporter SeriesNo (Year)

With required if applicable elements

Name of Case, VolNo Reporter SeriesNo (Name of Court Year)

Bowers v Hardwick 478 US 186 (1986).

Unpublished or informally published content

The titles of unpublished works are set in quotation marks rather than italics. In place of a publisher, location or institutional information can be given.

Troy Thibodeaux, ‘Modernism in Greenwich Village, 1908–1929’ (PhD dissertation, New York University, 1999), p. 59.

Mary Koo, ‘Prakriti and Purusha: Dualism in the Yoga of Patanjali’ (lecture, Theosophical Society, Chennai, India, 17 May 2008).

Website or other source

If you need to cite a website or other source that does not follow the pattern of the documents discussed here, please include in your citation as much as possible of the following, in this order: author; title or description of the content; owner/publisher; date of publication or most recent revision, or, failing that, date accessed; and URL. Some flexibility is necessary to accommodate the wide variety of content available, especially online.

The names of websites are usually set in roman type. However, the names of online magazines and books are italicized like their print counterparts.

1. ‘The Board of Directors of the Coca-Cola Company Authorizes New Share Repurchase Program’, Coca- Cola Company, 18 October 2012, http://www.coca-colacompany.com/media-center/press-releases/the-board-of-directors-of-the-coca-cola-company-authorizes-new-share-repurchase-program.

2. John Rambow, ‘Will This Demon Fit in My Carry-On?’, Bangalore Monkey blog, 21 December 2007, http://www.bangaloremonkey.com/2007/12/will-this-demon-fit-in-my-carry-on.html.

3. Wikimedia privacy policy, Wikimedia Foundation, accessed 26 November 2010, http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/ Privacy_policy.

We give examples using US spelling and punctuation here.

Short citations

When a work is cited for the first time in a chapter, the bibliographic information can be given in full (for an alternative, see section on numbered notes in combination with a bibliography). Subsequent citations should be shortened as in the examples in this section.

Please see Additional Guidelines for Law Authors for more information.

Legal short citations

Give the first mention of legal cases in full, as shown here. Subsequent mentions within the same article or chapter can be shortened to the case name alone, given in italics (even if italics are not used in the original citation):

1. Case C–34/89 P Smith v EC Commission [1993] ECR I–454

2. P Smith v EC Commission.

Numbered notes in combination with a bibliography

It is possible to combine notes and bibliography so that all the notes, including the first reference, are short citations that lead the reader to a full citation in the bibliography. This system results in shorter notes and less work for the reader, since complete information is easily available in the alphabetical bibliography and need not be hunted for through all the chapter notes.

This requires that all cited sources appear in a bibliography, which can also contain works that are not cited but are germane to the topic.

Structure of a bibliography entry

Bibliographies are structured similarly to notes, but there are some important differences. The first author name (and only the first) is inverted for the purposes of alphabetization. Punctuation format also varies slightly between notes and bibliographic entries.

Do not use long dashes to substitute for the name of an author whose name is repeated in the bibliography. This creates problems when linking that entry in an online context, where the entry may not appear immediately following the entry with the full name. Repeat the name in full.

Authored book

Required elements

Lastname, Firstname, Title of Work, (Year of Publication).

With optional elements

Lastname, Firstname, Title of Work, (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication).

With required if applicable elements

Lastname, Firstname, and Firstname Lastname. Title of Work, 2nd ed. (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication).

Chapter in an edited book

Required elements

Lastname, Firstname. ‘Title of Chapter in an Edited Book’. In Title of Edited Volume, edited by Firstname Lastname (Year of Publication).

With optional elements

Lastname, Firstname. ‘Title of Chapter in an Edited Book’. In Title of Edited Volume, edited by Firstname Lastname (City of Publication: Publisher).

With required if applicable elements

Lastname, Firstname, and Firstname Lastname. ‘Title of Chapter in an Edited Book’. In Title of Edited Volume, edited by Firstname Lastname (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication), page number(s) [or alternative locator info].

Journal article

Required elements

Lastname, Firstname,‘Title of Article’. Name of Journal vol. number, no. X (Year): start page.

With optional elements

Lastname, Firstname,‘Title of Article’. Name of Journal vol. number, no. X (Month or Season Year): start page.

With required if applicable elements

Lastname, Firstname, and Firstname Lastname. ‘Title of Article’. Name of Journal vol. number, no. X (Month or Season Year): start page–end page. doi: XX [or stable URL].

Magazine article

Required elements

‘Title of Article’. Name of Magazine, Month Year of Pub.

With required if applicable elements

Lastname, Firstname, and Firstname Lastname. ‘Title of Article’. Name of Magazine, Day Month Year of Pub, doi: XX [or stable URL].

Website or other source

If you need to cite a website or other source that does not follow the pattern of the documents discussed here, please include in your citation as much as possible of the following, in this order: author; title or description of the content; owner/publisher; date of publication, most recent revision, or, failing that, date accessed; and URL. Some flexibility is necessary to accommodate the wide variety of content available, especially online.

The names of websites are usually set in roman type. However, the names of online magazines and books are italicized like their print counterparts.

Sample bibliography

Growiszc, Hanna. ‘Far Right Ideologies in Czech Literature’. In Eastern Europe After the Iron Curtain, edited by Anton Smirov (London: Chatto and Windus, 2012), ch. 7.

Himler, Mary Rose. ‘Religious Books as Best Sellers’. Publishers Weekly, 19 February 1927.

Khan, Imran, and Richard Collins. ‘True Belief: Hindu Metanarratives in Bollywood’. Journal of Cinema Studies 7, no. 4 (2009): pp. 104–115. doi:10.1086/jcs113.3.752.

Murray, Michael. ‘The Antarctic Summer Lengthens’. Journal of Climate Studies 20, no. 9 (2011): p. 203.

Murray, Michael. Climate Change at the Poles (New York: Scribner, 2007).

Rambow, John. ‘Will This Demon Fit in My Carry-On?’ Bangalore Monkey blog. 21 December 2007. http://www.bangaloremonkey.com/2007/12/will-this-demon-fit-in-my-carry-on.html.

We give examples using US spelling and punctuation here.