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Cover

Traditions in Architecture

Africa, America, Asia, and Oceania

Dora P. Crouch and June G. Johnson

Publication Date - September 2000

ISBN: 9780195088915

448 pages
Paperback
8-1/2 x 10 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $95.95

The only full, one-volume study of non-Euroamerican architecture

Description

Traditions in Architecture: Africa, America, Asia, and Oceania is the first wide-ranging, one-volume study to examine the architectural achievements of diverse cultures outside the Euroamerican tradition. In contrast with traditional chronological surveys of architectural history, this volume is arranged thematically to show the basic commonalties of all human communities. In order to provide a basic understanding of the cultural heritage defining these diverse groups, both vernacular and monumental works are discussed. The book is divided into five major sections, each of which addresses specific topics fundamental to all societies. The authors discuss these topics in terms of particular architectural solutions, comparing and contrasting geographically separated buildings and construction traditions. For example, the issue of architectural meaning is studied through symbolic gardens in China, verbal ornament in the Islamic world, and the wall paintings of Ndebele women of southeast Africa. Beginning with an investigation into the ways in which the continuity of traditional forms is maintained, the authors then explore practical issues such as housing and food structures, climate and ecology, building materials, and architectural forms and methods. Architectural goals and purposes, which determine what is built, vary from culture to culture and are given special attention. Planning and design-ways in which space is used in patterns of organization-range from urban plans to landscaped settings. The authors conclude with an examination of cultural values, investigating the way in which architecture interacts with social relations, traditional theories, decision-making, and the economics of building. The book is enhanced by over 200 photographs, maps, and charts, as well as a glossary and full bibliography. This unique study will enlighten students and open new avenues of research for scholars.

About the Author(s)

Dora P. Crouch is Professor Emeritus at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
June G. Johnson is Lecturer in the Department of Agriculture at El Camino Community College.

Table of Contents

    Preface
    Notes on the Text, Sources, and Appendix
    Introduction
    PART I. MULTIPLICITY AND CONTINUITY IN TRADITION
    1. FORM AND CONTENT
    Early Shrines, India
    Caves: Lomas Rishi, Barabar Hills, and Chaitya Hall, Karli
    The Stupa Form: Great Stupa, Sanchi
    Hindu and Jain Shrines, India
    Kandriya Mahadev Temple, Khajuraho
    Dilwara Temples, Rajputana
    Buddhist Shrines, Japan, and Burma
    Horyu-ji Temple, Asuka, Japan
    Ananda Temple, Pagan, Burma
    Suggested Readings
    TRANSFER OF TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURAL KNOWLEDGE
    Person-to-Person Transfer
    Community Case Studies
    Professional Knowledge
    Documented Knowledge
    Chinese Construction Manuals
    Suggested Readings
    PART II. PRACTICAL SOLUTIONS
    3. SURVIVAL: WATER, SHELTER, AND FOOD
    Water
    Municipal Water in Kathmandu, Nepal
    Irrigation Systems in Peru
    River Training in China
    Shelter
    Movalbe Dwellings
    Stationary Dwellings
    Underground Houses: Available to Everyone
    Food Structures
    Granaries at Mohenjo-Daro
    Japanese Granaries
    Floating Gardens of the Valley of Mexico
    Suggested Readings
    4. CLIMATE AND ECOLOGY
    Cold and Dry
    Houses of Snow and Skin--Inuit Iglus of Northern Canada
    Summer and Winter Houses in Tibet
    Hot and Dry: Solar Management in the Middle East
    Hot and Humid: Big Roof in the New Guinea Rain Forest
    Suggested Readings
    5. MATERIALS, METHODS, AND ARCHITECTURAL FORM
    Carved-Out Architecture
    Ethiopian Rock-Cut Churches
    Cosmic Mountain at Borobudur, Java
    Assembled Pieces
    Lashed Polynesian Houses
    Interlocking Frameworks in Japan
    One Culture, Two Building Traditions
    Inka Stone Masonry
    Inka Roads and Woven Suspension Bridges
    Suggested Readings
    PART III. PURPOSES OF TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE
    6. SPACES FOR DAILY LIFE
    Living in Tight Spaces
    Houseboats of China
    Houseboats in Kashmir
    Use of the street and the Roof in Nepal
    Access to Architecture--Social Rewards and the Use of Buildings
    Social Rewards and the Use of Ceremonial Buildings in New Guinea
    Space and Gender in Islamic Society: Kano Palace, Nigeria
    Suggested Readings
    7. RELIGIOUS ARCHITECTURE--A CONTINUUM OF MEANING
    Space in the Home
    Japanese Tokonoma
    Mexican Altar of the Dead
    Space on the Street
    Bhaktapur's Street Shrines, Nepal
    Temporary Temples for Processions in India
    Spaces Set Apart
    Special Buildings: North African Mosques
    Ceremonial District: Teotihuacan, Mexico
    Without Buildings: Mount Taylor, New Mexico
    Suggested Readings
    8. EXPRESSION OF POWER
    Monumentality
    Stone Architecture in the Caroline Islands
    Great Zimbabwe in East Africa
    Empire Building
    The Great Wall of China
    Saqsaywaman Fortress, Peru
    Colonialism and Native Traditions
    Inka and Spanish Changes at Cuzco
    Mughals in India: Red Forts at Agra and Delhi
    Suggested Readings
    PART IV. PLANNING AND DESIGN
    9. Land Use
    Urban Planning
    Formal or Organic: Mohenjo-Daro and Toledo
    Symbolic Creation or Gradual Agglomeration?
    Landscaped Settings
    Form and Meaning: Taj Mahal, Agra, India
    Continuity with Setting: Katsura Palace (Villa), Japan
    Suggested Readings
    10. BUILDING TYPES AND USES
    Unique Types
    Ballcourts of Central America
    Islamic Educational Buildings
    Pyramids, Platforms, and Altars
    Pyramids in Mesoamerica: La Venta, Monte Alban, and Chicken-Itza
    Oceania: The Tuamotu Archipelago
    Housing Varieties
    Town Houses, Nepal
    Stilt Houses in Indonesia
    Using Space
    Japanese Floor-Level Living
    Islamic Floor-Level Living
    Suggested Readings
    11. ORGANIZATION OF STRUCTURES
    Hollow Centers: Courtyards
    North Africa and the Middle East
    China
    American Southwest
    Solid Center: Angkor Wat, Cambodia
    Axial Arrangements
    Beijing, China: Forbidden City
    Teotihuacan, Mexico: Street of the Dead
    Suggested Readings
    PART V. CULTURAL VALUES
    12. VERNACULAR AND MONUMENTAL COMBINATIONS
    Water System: Sri Lanka
    Durbar Square, Patan, Nepal
    Early Historic Period (Licchavi Dynasty 300-879)
    Transitional Period (879-1200) and Malla Period (1200-1482)
    Independent Patan
    The Seventeenth-Century Builder-Kings
    The Eighteenth Century
    Suggested Readings
    13. SYMBOLISM AND ORNAMENTATION
    Symbolic Gardens
    Chinese Gardens
    Calligraphy as Structural Ornamentation: Islamic Architecture
    Other Forms of Structural Ornamentation
    Painted Walls: The Ndebele of South Africa
    Suggested Readings
    14. ARCHITECTURE AND SOCIAL RELATIONS
    Blank Walls for Privacy: Islamic and Chinese Neighborhoods
    Overt Expressions of Status
    Acoma Pueblo: United States
    Great Plains Tipis: United States
    Royal Buildings: Tikal, Guatemala
    Suggested Readings
    15. THEORIES OF ARCHITECTURE
    Theoretical Differences
    Being and Nonbeing in Chinese Architecture
    Anthropomorphic Architecture in West Africa
    Writing Architectural History
    Class, Gender, and Ethnicity
    Case Study: Maya Historiography
    Suggested Readings
    16. ARCHITECTURAL DECISION-MAKING
    Adaptation
    Symbols and Concepts--A Review
    Dome of Stone in Islamic Architecture
    Use and Reuse of Architectural Forms
    Porticoes of the Old and New Worlds--Traditional?
    Stupas Become Pagodas
    Originality: The Turkish Architect Sinan
    Shezade (also Sehzade) Cami (1543-48), Istanbul
    Suleymaniye (1550-57), Istanbul
    Selimiye Cami (1569-75), Edirne
    Suggested Readings
    17. THE ECONOMICS OF BUILDING
    Durabitlity: Rebuilding at the Ise Shrine, Japan
    Construction Costs
    Economics of Construction
    Modern Research on Costs
    Analogies from Ancient Construction
    Describing Costs of Taj Mahal Construction
    New Analysis of Costs: Energetics in the Yucatan
    Suggested Readings
    Conclusion
    Appendix I Maps of Major Areas of the World
    Africa
    North American
    Central and northwest South America
    Asia
    Oceania
    Expansion of Buddhism
    Expansion of Islam
    Appendix II Tables of Materials, for Wall Building, for Roofing
    Glossary
    Selected Bibliography
    Credits
    Index