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Cover

The Human Strategy

An Evolutionary Perspective on Human Anatomy

John H. Langdon

Publication Date - February 2005

ISBN: 9780195167351

384 pages
Hardcover
7-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $95.95

A unique and accessible evolutionary approach to the study of human anatomy

Description

The Human Strategy brings a unique and accessible evolutionary approach to the study of human anatomy. Bridging the disciplines of anthropology and biology, it acknowledges that human beings are vertebrates, mammals, and primates, and that the anatomical systems of the human body reflect adaptations from each of these levels of classification. John H. Langdon identifies the significance of those traits that make humans distinct from other vertebrates, exploring adaptations to the musculoskeletal, nervous, and reproductive systems and to systems of homeostasis. He addresses the question: "What functions are represented in the body structure and what history lies behind them?" Framing the answers in terms of physiological goals, functional adaptation, and evolutionary contingency, he covers both soft- and hard-tissue systems. Langdon considers how behavioral changes in our ancestors--bipedalism and a changing diet that incorporated meat--relate to anatomical changes in nearly every organ system and contributed to expansion of the brain, a higher energy budget, and a prolongation of life history.
Integrating the most recent research in the field, The Human Strategy features more than 250 clear and well-labeled illustrations that explain anatomical systems and processes. It includes tables that detail the differences between the major classes of vertebrates, helping students to put evolutionary variations among species in context. A comprehensive glossary and an extensive bibliography are also provided. Ideal for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses in human evolutionary anatomy, The Human Strategy can also be used in human anatomy and human evolution courses. Taking a more complete look at the human body in an evolutionary sense than any other existing text--and demonstrating that the human present is best understood in terms of our past--this volume serves as an excellent starting point for discussion, critical thinking, and further research.

Table of Contents

    List of Tables
    Preface
    PART I. INTRODUCTION
    1. EVOLUTION AND ADAPTATION
    What Is Evolution?
    The Theory of Evolution
    The Evidence for Evolution
    Darwinism: Evolution by Natural Selection
    Natural Selection
    Evidence for Natural Selection
    The Origin of Heritable Variation
    How Variation Takes Form
    Differences in Degree of Development
    Differences in Direction of Development
    The Limits of Natural Selection
    Sexual Selection
    Adaptationism: An Evolutionary Perspective
    Other Paths to Adaptation
    Important Evolutionary Concepts
    2. A PLACE IN NATURE: HUMANS IN AN EVOLVING WORLD
    A Place in Time
    A Place in Life: Biological Classification
    Comparative Background of the Human Species
    Kingdom Animalia
    Phylum Chordata
    Subphylum Vertebrata
    Tetrapods
    Class Mammalia
    Order Primates
    Family Hominidae
    The Emergence of Humans
    PART II. MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM
    3. BONES, JOINTS, AND MUSCLES
    Stresses and Strains
    Cartilage
    Bone
    Development and Growth of Bone
    Remodeling of Bone
    Adaptations of Mammalian Bone
    Ligament and Tendon
    Joints
    Accessory and Conjunct Motions
    Muscle
    Concepts of Functional Design
    Reduction of Mass
    Energetic Efficiency
    4. THE SKULL
    The Human Skull
    Evolution of the Mammalian Skull
    Origins of the Vertebrate Cranium
    Mammalian Modifications of the Tetrapod Skull
    Changes in the Primate Skull
    The Primate Face
    Orbital Convergence
    Shortening the Face
    The Cranial Vault
    Browridges
    Basicranial Flexion
    Mechanics of Head Balance
    Jaws
    The Mandibular Symphysis and the Chin
    The Australopithecine Chewing Complex
    The Problem of Skeletal and Dental Reduction
    5. TEETH
    Tooth Development
    Evolution of Vertebrate Teeth
    Origins of Teeth
    Mammalian Dental Adaptations
    The Tribosphenic Molar
    Hominin Teeth
    Dental Formulae
    Anterior Dentition
    Posterior Dentition
    The Dental Arcade and the Chewing Cycle
    Hominin Enamel Adaptations
    Dental Adaptations of the Neanderthals
    Modern Trends and Variations in Human Dentition
    6. THE SPINE
    Stages in the Evolution of Vertebrate Body Design
    Fish
    Early Tetrapods
    Mammals
    Structure of the Human Vertebral Column
    Intervertebral Joints
    Regions of the Human Spine
    Curvatures of the Spine
    Fossil Evidence
    Musculature of the Trunk
    7. THE UPPER LIMB
    Evolution of the Forelimb
    The Origin of Tetrapod Limbs
    The Mammalian Forelimb
    Hominoid Adaptations
    The Pectoral Girdle
    The Elbow
    Hands
    Knuckle-Walking
    Human Hands
    Adaptations for Manipulation
    Evolution of the Thumb
    Fossil Tool-Makers?
    8. THE LOWER LIMB
    The Pelvis
    Adaptations of the Hip Joint for Bipedalism
    The Thigh
    The Knee
    Adaptations of the Knee for Bipedalism
    The Leg
    The Ankle and Foot
    The Bones of the Foot
    The Toes
    Evolutionary Trends in Ankle and Foot Musculature
    The Longitudinal Arch of the Foot
    Conversion Mechanism of the Foot
    Support for the Arch
    Function of the Longitudinal Arch
    Functional Variation in the Design of the Arch
    9. THE HUMAN STRATEGY: BIPEDALISM
    The Transition to Bipedalism
    The Pelvis and Hip
    The Knee
    The Foot
    The Australopithecine Body
    After the Australopithecines
    The Adaptive Significance of Bipedalism
    Historical Speculations Concerning the Origin of Bipedalism
    The Problem with Cultural Models
    Reconstructing the Transition
    PART III. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    10. ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN
    Initial Development of Nervous System
    General Anatomy of the Brain
    The Brainstem
    The Forebrain
    Diencephalon
    Cerebrum
    Functional Organization of the Brain
    Specific and Nonspecific Projections
    Consciousness
    Functional Localization
    Somatotopic Organization
    Phylogenetic Layering
    The Motor System
    Decussation
    Functional Lateralization
    Language and Lateralization
    The Evolution of Language and Lateralization
    Lateralization in Primates
    Evidence of Language in Nonhuman Primates
    Fossil Evidence for Language
    Integration with Other Systems
    The Neuroendocrine System
    The Autonomic Nerves
    The Neuroendocrine Axis
    Neuroendocrine Integration: The Stress Response
    Integration with the Immune System
    Integration with Consciousness: The Limbic System
    Emotions
    The Reward System
    Memory
    11. THE HUMAN STRATEGY: BRAIN SIZE
    Comparing Brains
    The Relation of Brain and Body Size
    Brain Size and Function
    The Rate of Hominin Brain Evolution
    Selecting for Brain Size
    The Social Model
    Dietary Models
    Metabolic Needs
    Environmental Models
    Overcoming Constraints
    Selecting for Reorganization and New Abilities
    Developmental Possibilities
    Qualitative Differences in Function
    12. THE SPECIAL SENSES
    Olfaction
    Central Pathways
    The Evolution of Smell
    The Vomeronasal Organ
    Taste
    Vision
    Frontally Directed Vision
    Photoreceptors and Color Vision
    Evolution of Vision in the Brain
    Equilibrium
    Hearing
    The Outer and Middle Ears
    The Evolution of the Ear
    PART IV. SYSTEMS OF HOMEOSTASIS
    13. SKIN
    The Anatomy of Skin
    The Epidermis
    The Dermis
    The Hypodermis
    Differences among Vertebrates
    Getting a Grip: Fingerprints and Nails
    Friction Pads and Fingerprints
    Nails
    Hair
    Hair Reduction
    Glands of the Skin
    Apocrine Glands
    Eccrine Glands
    Sweat and Hair Reduction as a Human Strategy for Thermoregulation
    A Problem of Fat
    Fat as Insulation
    Fat Is an Adaptation for the Brain
    Explaining Human Skin Pigmentation
    Melanin and Photoprotection
    The Vitamin D Hypothesis
    Other Hypotheses of Human Pigmentation
    More Pigments
    Hair and Eye Color
    Melanin in Other Tissues
    Genetics of Skin Pigmentation
    14. DIGESTION AND DIET
    A Natural Diet
    The Digestive System
    The Coelom and the Peritoneum
    Tissue Structure of the Alimentary Canal
    Organs of the Digestive Tract
    The Start of the Canal
    Esophagus
    Stomach
    Small Intestine
    Accessory Glands
    Colon
    Reconstructing the Diet of Early Hominins
    The Evidence of Dental Anatomy
    The Evidence of Dental Microwear
    Bone Composition and Diet
    Archaeological Evidence of Meat Consumption
    And Other Evidence. . .
    Later Hominins
    A Backward Look from the Present
    Modern Hunter-Gatherer Diet
    Feeding the Brain
    Anatomical Adaptations
    Frugivory, Carnivory, Omnivory
    Recent Changes in Diet and Health
    15. RESPIRATION
    Evolution of Vertebrate Breathing
    The Problem of Gas Exchange and Transport
    Gills
    Lungs and Swim Bladders
    Breathing in Simple Tetrapods
    Breathing in Mammals
    Mechanics of Human Respiration
    Functional Specializations of the Human Respiratory Tract
    The Nasal Passages
    The Pharynx
    The Larynx
    The Evolution of Speech
    Climatic Adaptations
    16. CIRCULATION
    The Heart
    The Chambered Heart
    Structure and Function of the Human Heart
    Evolution of Vertebrate Circulation
    Circulation through Gills
    Circulation through Lungs
    Human Ontogeny Recapitulating Phylogeny
    The Fetal Circulation Pattern
    Changes at Birth
    Circulation and Thermoregulation
    Countercurrent Exchanges: Maintaining a Temperature Differential
    Cooling the Body: Regulating Cutaneous Blood Flow
    Cooling the Brain
    17. EXCRETION
    Evolution of the Vertebrate Kidney
    The Vertebrate Nephron
    Vertebrate Strategies
    Kidneys of Simple Vertebrates
    The Mammalian Kidney
    The Concentration of Urine
    Human Water Balance
    18. THE HUMAN STRATEGY: ENERGY FLOW, HOMEOSTASIS, AND ENDURANCE
    Limitations on Energy Processing
    Endurance Requires Energy
    Energy and Oxygen Consumption
    Managing Heat
    The Significance of Body Size and Form
    Body Form and Climate Adaptation
    The Human Strategy
    PART V. REPRODUCTION
    19. REPRODUCTION
    The Origin of Sexual Reproduction
    Gametes and the Basis of Sexual Selection
    Dimorphism and Secondary Sexual Characteristics
    Vertebrate Reproductive Strategies
    Mammalian Strategies
    Menstruation
    The Placenta
    Labor and Delivery
    Labor: A Positive Feedback Mechanism
    The Anatomy of Delivery
    The Evolution of Birth
    Lactation and the Breast
    The Composition of Milk
    Breasts and the Female Figure
    Breasts as Erotic Attractors
    Breasts as Advertisements
    Breasts as Deceitful Advertisements
    The Problem of Gender Recognition
    20. SEX AND HUMAN EVOLUTION
    Sexuality and Mating among the Apes
    Two Adaptationist Models
    The Pair-Bond Model
    The Promiscuity Model
    Contrasting the Models
    Sexual Selection in the Human Species
    Sexual Dimorphism in Body Size
    Evidence for Sexual Selection of Men
    Sexual Selection and Genital Size
    Sperm Competition
    Evidence for Sexual Selection among Women
    Sexual Selection and Contemporary Mate Selection
    Women: Choosing Status
    Men: Choosing Reproductive Potential
    Support for the Pair-Bond Model
    Human Sexual Behavior
    The Problem of Estrus
    Is Ovulation Concealed?
    The Pleasure of Sex
    The Obscuring of Estrus: Support for the Promiscuity Model?
    Human Mating Systems Are Flexible
    Conclusions
    21. THE HUMAN STRATEGY: LIFE HISTORY
    The r and K Strategies
    Trends
    Human Life History
    Stages of Life History
    Fetal Life
    Infancy and Nursing
    Juvenile Life and Childhood
    Subadults and Maturity
    Postreproductive Life
    Longevity and Evolution of the Modern Life Span
    Dental Maturation in Early Hominins
    Foraging, Energy, and Society
    Glossary
    Bibliography
    Index