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Cover

The Complete Musician

An Integrated Approach to Tonal Theory, Analysis, and Listening

Third Edition

Steven G. Laitz

Publication Date - April 2011

ISBN: 9780199742783

896 pages
Hardcover
8 x 10 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $99.95

The most engaging, integrated, and musical tonal theory text available for music majors

Description

Beginning with music fundamentals, this text covers all the topics necessary for a thorough understanding of undergraduate music theory by focusing on music in context. The text links each of the tasks that comprise a tonal theory curriculum, explicitly connecting written theory (writing and analysis), skills (singing, playing, and dictation), and music-making outside the theory class.

DISTINCTIVE FEATURES
* Presents an outstanding quality, quantity, and diversity of exercises geared toward real music and real music situations
* Explores not only standard four-voice harmony, but also other musical domains including melody, counterpoint, and a multitude of textures; the result is a text with applicability and relevance to all musicians
* Includes almost 4,500 musical examples from the common-practice repertoire in the text and workbooks, more than 90 percent of which are on the CDs included with the text and workbooks--nearly twenty hours of music on MP3 files (all music is performed, recorded, and engineered at Eastman)

New to this Edition

  • Revised with beginning students in mind, this edition contains more basic exercises as well as solutions to selected exercises in the text. Longer and more difficult exercises have been moved to the workbooks.
  • Streamlined and reorganized with fewer chapters (31, down from 37), the text presents the most commonly taught topics in sequence and moves less-common topics--such as invertible counterpoint, compound melody, and motive (covered in chapters 15, 16, and 23 of the previous edition)--to the appendices, where instructors may access them as their individual curriculum permits, or omit them altogether.
  • This edition offers a new presentation of fundamentals: the first three chapters provide a review and synthesis for students with experience in music fundamentals, and a 75-page appendix introduces key concepts for students with little or no experience. This allows instructors to choose the pacing that best suits their class and individual students.
  • Numerous musical examples include guiding annotations, with textural and structural reductions of more complex examples.
  • This edition presents more than 250 new literature excerpts and complete works for analysis and dictation, including new instrumental combinations.
  • New appendices offer further support: Appendix 5 covers terms and abbreviations used in the text and Appendix 6 includes selected answers to exercises in the text.

About the Author(s)

Steven G. Laitz is Professor of Music Theory at the Eastman School of Music at the University of Rochester. He is also an Affiliate Faculty Member in the Chamber Music Department at Eastman. Dr. Laitz is the current editor of the Journal of Music Theory Pedagogy.

Reviews

"The Complete Musician offers a depth of theoretical training and analytical insight that its competitors do not. It has, by far, the best musical examples of any textbook available on the market today. The exercises, which incrementally progress from easier to harder, are highly original and just plain fun to do."--Reginald Bain, University of South Carolina

"The integration of composition, analysis, aural recognition, and performance is the best feature of The Complete Musician. It subtly reinforces the idea that a musician needs an understanding of each aspect of the musical universe in order to excel in any of its specialized areas. The Complete Musician trains music students to think like composers, which cannot help but make them better performers."--Ciro Scotto, University of South Florida

"The most comprehensive, musically intelligent, and easy-to-use music theory textbook on the market."--Stefan Eckert, University of Northern Colorado

"This title ranks among the very best of its kind. . . . If you want a thorough and approachable book that gets behind, or into the head (indeed, heart and soul) of composers whose music you've known; want to know how it works the way it does, and why; want to see the mechanics, an appreciation of which serves only to enhance your sense of admiration for their technique, then The Complete Musician can be recommended wholeheartedly."--Review from Classical.net

Table of Contents

    PART 1: THE FOUNDATION OF TONAL MUSIC
    CHAPTER 1: MUSICAL SPACE AND TIME
    Tonality in Context: Bach's Violin Partita no. 3, Prelude
    Specifics of the Pitch Realm
    Pitches and Pitch Classes
    Scales
    Keys
    Intervals
    Enharmonic Intervals
    Consonant and Dissonant Intervals
    The Metrical Realm
    Meter Signature
    Asymmetrical Meters
    Clarifying Meter
    More Rhythmic Procedures
    Accent in Music
    >> Temporal Accents
    >> Nontemporal Accents
    Metrical Disturbance
    >> Syncopation
    >> Hemiola
    CHAPTER 2: HARNESSING SPACE AND TIME: INTRODUCTION TO MELODY AND TWO-VOICE COUNTERPOINT
    Melody: Characteristics and Writing
    Controlling Consonance and Dissonance: Introduction to Two-Voice Counterpoint
    First-Species Counterpoint
    >> Contrapuntal Motions
    >> Beginning and Ending First-Species Counterpoint
    >> Rules and Guidelines for First-Species (1:1) Counterpoint
    Second-Species Counterpoint
    >> Weak-Beat Consonance
    >> Weak-Beat Dissonance
    >> More on Perfect Consonances
    >> Beginning and Ending Second-Species Counterpoint
    >> Rules and Guidelines for Second-Species Counterpoint
    CHAPTER 3: MUSICAL DENSITY: TRIADS, SEVENTH CHORDS, AND TEXTURE
    Adding Voices: Triads and Seventh Chords
    Triads
    >> Figured Bass
    >> Triads and the Scale: Harmonic Analysis
    >> Harmony and the Keyboard
    Seventh Chords
    Musical Texture
    Analytical Method
    PART 2: MERGING MELODY AND HARMONY
    CHAPTER 4: WHEN HARMONY, MELODY, AND RHYTHM CONVERGE
    Tonal Hierarchy in Music
    Embellishing Tones
    The Importance of Context in Analysis
    Analytical Interlude
    Melodic Fluency
    Melody as Harmony
    CHAPTER 5: TONIC AND DOMINANT AS TONAL PILLARS AND INTRODUCTION TO VOICE LEADING
    Characteristics and Effect of V and I
    The Cadence
    Introduction to Voice Leading
    Texture and Register
    Three Techniques to Create Voice Independence within a Four-Voice Texture
    >> Technique 1: Smoothness
    >> Technique 2: Registral Independence
    >> Technique 3: Contrapuntal Independence
    Creating the Best Sound: Incomplete and Complete Chords, Doubling, and Spacing
    >> Omitted Chord Tones
    >> Doubled Chord Tones
    >> Spacing and Voicing
    Summary of Voice-Leading Rules and Guidelines
    CHAPTER 6: THE IMPACT OF MELODY, RHYTHM, AND METER ON HARMONY; INTRODUCTION TO V7
    The Interaction of Harmony, Melody, Meter, and Rhythm: Embellishment and Reduction
    Embellishment
    Reduction
    The Dominant Seventh and Chordal Dissonance
    Derivation and New Melodic Possibilities
    Part Writing with the Dominant Seventh Chords
    An Analytical Interlude
    Harmonizing Florid Melodies
    Summary
    CHAPTER 7: CONTRAPUNTAL EXPANSIONS OF TONIC AND DOMINANT: SIX-THREE CHORDS
    Chordal Leaps in the Bass: I6 and V6
    Neighbor Tones in the Bass (V6)
    Second Level Analysis
    Passing Tones in the Bass: viio6
    Tonic Expansion with an Arpeggiating Bass: IV6
    Dominant Expansion with Passing Tones: IV6
    Combining First-Inversion Chords
    Summary
    CHAPTER 8: MORE CONTRAPUNTAL EXPANSIONS: INVERSIONS OF V7, INTRODUCTION TO LEADING TONE SEVENTH CHORDS, AND REDUCTION AND ELABORATION
    V7 and Its Inversions
    V6/5
    V4/3
    V4/2
    Voice-Leading Inversions of V7
    Combining Inversions of V7
    Compositional Impact of Contrapuntal Chords
    Leading Tone Seventh Chords: viio7 and viio7
    Voice Leading for viio7
    viio7
    Summary of Contrapuntal Expansions
    Reduction and Elaboration: Compositional and Performance Implications
    >> Reduction
    >> Elaboration
    Summary of Part 2
    PART 3: A NEW HARMONIC FUNCTION, THE PHRASE MODEL, AND ADDITIONAL MELODIC AND HARMONIC EMBELLISHMENTS
    CHAPTER 9: THE PRE-DOMINANT FUNCTION AND THE PHRASE MODEL
    The Pre-Dominant Function
    The Subdominant (IV in Major, iv in Minor)
    The Supertonic (ii in Major, iio in Minor)
    Pre-Dominants and the Stepwise Ascending Bass
    Part Writing for Pre-Dominants
    Extending the Pre-Dominant
    Introduction to the Phrase Model
    Analytical Interlude
    CHAPTER 10: ACCENTED AND CHROMATIC EMBELLISHING TONES
    The Accented Passing Tone (APT)
    The Chromatic Passing Tone (CPT)
    The Accented Neighbor Tone (AN)
    The Chromatic Neighbor Tone (CN)
    The Appoggiatura (APP)
    The Suspension (S)
    Labeling Suspensions
    Writing Suspensions
    Additional Suspension Techniques
    The Anticipation (ANT)
    The Pedal (PED)
    Summary of the Most Common Embellishing Tones
    CHAPTER 11: SIX-FOUR CHORDS, REVISITING THE SUBDOMINANT, AND SUMMARY OF CONTRAPUNTAL EXPANSIONS
    Unaccented Six-Four Chords
    Pedal
    Passing
    Arpeggiating
    Accented Six-Four Chords
    Cadential
    >> Additional Uses of Cadential Six-Four Chord
    ---- As Part of Half Cadences and Authentic Cadences
    ---- Preceding V7
    ---- Within a Phrase
    ---- Evaded Cadences: Elision and Extension
    ---- Triple Meter
    ---- Writing Six-Four Chords
    Revisiting the Subdominant
    Summary of Harmonic Paradigms
    Harmonizing Florid Melodies
    CHAPTER 12: THE PRE-DOMINANT REFINES THE PHRASE MODEL
    Nondominant Seventh Chords: IV7 (IV6/5) and ii7 (ii6/5)
    Analyzing Nondominant Seventh Chords
    Embedding the Phrase Model
    Contrapuntal Cadences
    Expanding the Pre-Dominant
    >> Passing Chord between ii and ii6 (or between ii6 and ii)
    >> Passing Chord between IV and IV6 (or between IV6 and IV)
    >> Passing Chord Moving from IV6 (IV6/5) to ii6/5
    >> Restate Tonic Material Up a Step
    Subphrases
    Composite Phrases
    Summary of Part 3
    PART 4: NEW CHORDS AND NEW FORMS
    CHAPTER 13: THE SUBMEDIANT: A NEW DIATONIC HARMONY, AND FURTHER EXTENSIONS OF THE PHRASE MODEL
    The Submediant
    The Submediant as Bridge in the Descending-Thirds Progression
    The Submediant in the Descending-Circle-of-Fifths Progressions
    The Submediant as Tonic Substitute in Ascending-Seconds Progressions
    Voice Leading for the Submediant
    >> The Descending-Thirds Progression, I-vi-IV
    >> The Descending-Fifths Progression, I-vi-ii (or I-vi-ii6)
    >> The Ascending-Seconds Progression, V-vi
    Contextual Analysis
    Tonic and Dominant Embellish the Submediant
    Apparent Submediants
    The Step Descent in the Bass
    CHAPTER 14: THE MEDIANT, THE BACK-RELATING DOMINANT, AND A SYNTHESIS OF DIATONIC HARMONIC RELATIONSHIPS
    The Mediant (iii in Major; III in Minor)
    The Mediant in Arpeggiations
    A Special Case: Preparing the III Chord in Minor
    Voice Leading for the Mediant
    More Contextual Analysis: The Back-Relating Dominant and Synthesis: Root Motion Principles
    The Back-Relating Dominant
    Synthesis: Root Motion Principles
    >> Compositional Application
    CHAPTER 15: THE PERIOD
    Aspects of Melody and Harmony in Periods
    Representing Form: The Formal Diagram
    Sample Analysis of Periods and Some Analytical Guidelines
    Summary for Analyzing Periods
    Composing Periods
    CHAPTER 16: OTHER SMALL MUSICAL STRUCTURES: SENTENCES, DOUBLE PERIODS, AND MODIFIED PERIODS
    The Sentence: An Alternative Musical Structure
    The Double Period
    Modified Periods
    Extensions
    Phrase Group
    Asymmetrical Periods
    CHAPTER 17: HARMONIC SEQUENCES
    Components and Types of Sequences
    The Descending-Second (D2) Sequence
    >> The Descending-Second Sequence in Inversion
    The Descending-Third (D3) Sequence
    >> The Descending-Third Sequence in Inversion
    The Ascending-Second (A2) Sequence
    Another Ascending-Second Sequence: A2 (-3/+4)
    Sequences with Diatonic Seventh Chords
    >> Sequences with Inversions of Seventh Chords
    Writing Sequences
    Summary of Diatonic Sequences
    Summary of Part 4
    PART 5: FUNCTIONAL CHROMATICISM
    CHAPTER 18: APPLIED CHORDS
    Applied Dominant Chords
    Applied Chords in Inversion
    Tonicized Half Cadences
    Recognizing Applied Chords
    Voice Leading for Applied Chords
    Applied Leading-Tone Chords
    Incorporating Applied Chords within Phrases
    An Example Composition
    Sequences with Applied Chords
    The D2 (-5/+4) Sequence
    The D3 (-4/+2) Sequence
    The A2 (-3/+4) Applied-Chord Sequence
    Writing Applied-Chord Sequences
    Summary of Diatonic and Applied-Chord Sequences
    CHAPTER 19: TONICIZATION AND MODULATION
    Extended Tonicization
    Modulation
    Closely Related Keys
    Analyzing Modulations
    Writing Modulations
    Modulation in the Larger Context
    The Sequence as a Tool in Modulation
    CHAPTER 20: BINARY FORM AND VARIATIONS
    Binary Form
    Simple Sectional Binary
    Simple Continuous Binary
    Rounded Sectional Binary
    Rounded Continuous Binary
    Balanced Binary Form
    Summary of Binary Form Types
    Variation Form
    Continuous Variations
    Sectional Variations
    Summary of Part 5
    Answers to Exercise 20.1
    PART 6: EXPRESSIVE CHROMATICISM
    CHAPTER 21: MODAL MIXTURE
    Altered Pre-Dominant Harmonies: iio and iv
    Application: Musical Effects of Melodic Mixture
    Altered Submediant Harmony: bVI
    Altered Tonic Harmony: i
    Altered Mediant Harmony: bIII
    Voice Leading for Mixture Harmonies
    Chromatic Stepwise Bass Descents
    Plagal Motions
    Modal Mixture, Applied Chords, and Other Chromatic Harmonies
    Summary
    CHAPTER 22: EXPANSION OF MODAL MIXTURE HARMONIES: CHROMATIC MODULATION AND THE GERMAN LIED
    Chromatic Pivot-Chord Modulations
    An Analytical Interlude: Schubert's Waltz in F major
    Writing Chromatic Modulations
    Unprepared and Common-Tone Modulations
    Analytical Challenges
    Modal Mixture and the German Lied
    An Analytical Interlude: Schumann's "Waldesgesprach"
    Analytical Payoff: The Dramatic Role of bVI
    CHAPTER 23: THE NEAPOLITAN CHORD (bII): CHARACTERISTICS, EFFECTS, AND BEHAVIOR
    Writing the Neapolitan Chord
    Expanding bII
    The Neapolitan in Sequences
    The Neapolitan as a Pivot Chord
    CHAPTER 24: THE AUGMENTED SIXTH CHORD: CHARACTERISTICS, DERIVATION, AND BEHAVIOR
    Types of Augmented Sixth Chords
    Writing Augmented Sixth Chords
    bVI and the Ger6/5 Chord
    Augmented Sixth Chords as Part of PD Expansions
    The Augmented Sixth Chord and Modulation: Reinforcement
    The Augmented Sixth Chord as Pivot in Modulation
    Summary of Part 6
    PART 7: LARGE FORMS: TERNARY, RONDO, SONATA
    CHAPTER 25: TERNARY FORM
    Characteristics
    Transitions and Retransitions
    Da Capo Form: Compound Ternary Form
    Da Capo Aria
    Minuet-Trio Form
    Ternary Form in the Nineteenth Century
    CHAPTER 26: RONDO
    Context
    The Classical Rondo
    Five-Part Rondo
    Coda, Transitions, and Retransitions
    Compound Rondo Form
    Seven-Part Rondo
    >> Distinguishing Seven-Part Rondo Form from Ternary Form
    Missing Double Bars and Repeats
    CHAPTER 27: SONATA FORM
    Historical Context and Tonal Background
    The Binary Model for Sonata Form
    Analytical Prelude: Beethoven, Piano Sonata in G minor, op. 49, no. 1
    Transition
    Closing Section
    Development and Retransition
    Recapitulation and Coda
    Additional Characteristics and Elements of Sonata Form
    Monothematic Sonata Form
    The Slow Introduction
    Harmonic Anomalies
    Other Tonal Strategies
    Three-Key Exposition
    Extended Third-Related STAs
    Sonata Rondo
    Analytical Synthesis: Sonatas of Haydn and Mozart
    Haydn: Piano Sonata no. 48 in C major, Hob. XVI.35, Allegro con brio
    >> Exposition
    >> Development
    >> Recapitulation
    Mozart, Piano Sonata in Bb Major, K. 333, Allegro
    >> Exposition
    >> Development
    Summary of Part 7
    PART 8: INTRODUCTION TO NINETEENTH-CENTURY HARMONY: THE SHIFT FROM ASYMMETRY TO SYMMETRY
    CHAPTER 28: NEW HARMONIC TENDENCIES
    Tonal Ambiguity: The Plagal Relation and Reciprocal Process
    Tonal Ambiguity: Semitonal Voice Leading
    Semitonal Voice Leading and Remote Keys
    Analytical Interlude
    The Diminished Seventh Chord and Enharmonic Modulation
    Analysis
    Analytical Interlude
    Tonal Clarity Postponed: Off-Tonic Beginning
    Double Tonality
    CHAPTER 29: THE RISE OF SYMMETRICAL HARMONY IN TONAL MUSIC
    A Paradox: "Balanced" Music Based on Asymmetry
    Symmetry and Tonal Ambiguity
    The Augmented Triad
    Altered Dominant Seventh Chords
    The Common-Tone Diminished Seventh Chord
    Common-Tone Augmented Sixth Chords
    Analytical Interlude
    CHAPTER 30: MELODIC AND HARMONIC SYMMETRY COMBINE: CHROMATIC SEQUENCES
    Distinctions between Diatonic and Chromatic Sequences
    Chromatic Sequence Types
    The DM2 (-4/+3) Sequence
    The Chromatic Forms of the D2 (-5/+4) Sequence
    The Chromatic Forms of the A2 (-3/+4) Sequence
    Other Chromatic Step-Descent Basses
    Six-Three Chords
    Diminished Seventh Chords
    Augmented Sixth Chords
    Writing Chromatic Sequences
    Chromatic Contrary Motion
    The Omnibus
    A Final Equal Division of the Octave
    CHAPTER 31: AT TONALITY'S EDGE
    Sequential Progressions
    Nonsequential Progressions and Equal Divisions of the Octave
    The Intervallic Cell
    Analytical Interlude:
    Chopin, Prelude, op. 28, no. 2
    Wagner, Tristan und Isolde, "Prelude"
    Scriabin, Prelude, op. 39, no. 2
    >> Intervallic Properties of Key Sonorities
    >> Compositional Processes:
    ---- A Traditional View
    ---- A Radical View
    Summary of Part 8
    APPENDICES
    1: FUNDAMENTALS
    a. The Pitch Realm
    Charting Musical Sound: Staff and Clef
    Pitch and Pitch Class
    The Division of Musical Space: Intervals
    Accidentals
    Scales
    Enharmonicism
    Scale Degree Numbers and Names
    Specific Scale Types: Major and Minor
    Building Scales in the Major Mode
    Key Signatures and the Circle of Fifths
    Building Scales in the Minor Mode
    Key Signatures in Minor
    Relative Major and Minor Keys
    b. Pulse, Rhythm, and Meter
    Rhythm and Durational Symbols
    Dots and Ties
    Meter
    >> Beat Division and Simple and Compound Meters
    >> The Meter Signature
    c. Intervals
    Naming Generic Intervals
    Melodic and Harmonic Intervals; Simple and Compound
    Tips for Identifying Generic Intervals
    Naming Specific Intervals
    Transforming Intervals: Augmented and Diminished Intervals
    Interval Inversion
    Generating All Intervals
    >> Method 1
    >> Method 2
    d. Triads, Inversions, Figured Bass, and Harmonic Analysis
    Triads
    >> Voicing Triads: Spacing and Doubling
    >> Triad Inversion
    >> Figured Bass
    ---- Analyzing and Composing Using Figured Bass
    ---- Additional Figured Bass Conventions: Abbreviations and Chromaticism
    >> Triads and the Scale: Harmonic Analysis
    >> Roman Numerals
    >> Introduction to Harmonic Analysis
    e. Seventh Chords and Harmonic Analysis
    Definitions and Type
    Musical Characteristics of Seventh Chords
    Inverted Seventh Chords
    Analytical Tips
    Seventh Chords and Harmonic Analysis
    2: INVERTIBLE COUNTERPOINT, COMPOUND MELODY, AND IMPLIED HARMONIES
    Invertible Counterpoint
    Definitions and Effects
    Invertible Counterpoint below the Music's Surface
    Harmonic Implications of Single Melodic Lines: Compound Melody
    Definitions
    Implied Harmonies
    3: THE MOTIVE
    Introduction
    Motive Types
    Motivic Repetition
    Strict Repetition
    Modified Repetition
    Additional Pitch Transformations
    Rhythmic Transformations
    Developmental Repetitions
    Inter-Section and Intermovement Motivic Repetitions
    Single-Interval Motives
    Hidden Motivic Repetitions
    Depth and Surface: Motivic Parallelism
    4: ADDITIONAL HARMONIC SEQUENCE TOPICS
    Compound Melody and Implied Seventh Chord Sequences
    Parallel First-Inversion Triads
    Sequences versus Sequential Progressions
    Composing Sequences within the Phrase Model
    5: ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
    6: SELECTED ANSWERS TO TEXTBOOK EXERCISES
    INDEX OF TERMS AND CONCEPTS
    INDEX OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES AND EXERCISES

Teaching Resources

SUPPORT PACKAGE

* The new Companion Website

(www.oup.com/us/laitz) provides instructor and student resources that include supplementary drill exercises.

* The Instructor's Manual

provides solutions to all of the dictation exercises, sample solutions for more than 250 writing (e.g., figured bass and melody harmonization) and analytical exercises, supplementary examples, exercises, and teaching guidelines that detail effective strategies for each chapter.

* The two workbooks

have been significantly reorganized: Workbook 1 is now dedicated to written and analytical activities, including figured bass, melody harmonization, model composition, and analysis. Workbook 2 covers musicianship skills. Exercises within each chapter of Workbook 2 are organized by activity type: singing arpeggiations of the chord being studied, then within a tune from the literature; two-part singing; dictation; keyboard; then instrumental application.