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Cover

Principles of Semiconductor Devices

Second Edition

Sima Dimitrijev

Publication Date - February 2011

ISBN: 9780195388039

640 pages
Hardcover
7-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $145.95

The most comprehensive and modern introduction to semiconductor device theory and applications

Description

The dimensions of modern semiconductor devices are reduced to the point where classical semiconductor theory, including the concepts of continuous particle concentration and continuous current, becomes questionable. Further questions relate to two-dimensional transport in the most important field-effect devices and one-dimensional transport in nanowires and carbon nanotubes.

Designed for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses, Principles of Semiconductor Devices, Second Edition, presents the semiconductor-physics and device principles in a way that upgrades classical semiconductor theory and enables proper interpretations of numerous quantum effects in modern devices. The semiconductor theory is directly linked to practical applications, including the links to the SPICE models and parameters that are commonly used during circuit design.

The text is divided into three parts: Part I explains semiconductor physics; Part II presents the principles of operation and modeling of the fundamental junctions and transistors; and Part III provides supplementary topics, including a dedicated chapter on the physics of nanoscale devices, description of the SPICE models and equivalent circuits that are needed for circuit design, introductions to the most important specific devices (photonic devices, JFETs and MESFETs, negative-resistance diodes, and power devices), and an overview of integrated-circuit technologies. The chapters and the sections in each chapter are organized so as to enable instructors to select more rigorous and design-related topics as they see fit.

New to this Edition

  • A new chapter on the physics of nanoscale devices
  • A revised chapter on the energy-band model and fully reworked and updated material on crystals to include graphene and carbon nanotubes
  • A revised P-N junction chapter to emphasize the current mechanisms that are relevant to modern devices
  • JFETs and MESFETs in a stand-alone chapter
  • Fifty-seven new problems and eleven new examples

Features

  • Comprehensive (solid introduction to semiconductor physics, broad range of devices, SPICE models, overview of technologies)
  • Modern (solid link between physics and SPICE models, emphasis on MOS devices, overview of nanoscale phenomena and devices)
  • Student-friendly (best explanations, well-explained quantum-mechanical fundamentals, best solved examples, intuitive figures)

About the Author(s)

Sima Dimitrijev is Professor at the Griffith School of Engineering and Deputy Director of Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre at Griffith University in Australia. He is the author of Understanding Semiconductor Devices (OUP, 2000) as well as numerous other publications in the areas of MOSFET technology, modeling, and applications.

Previous Publication Date(s)

October 2005

Reviews

"This book is better than other texts available on this topic because of its straightforward intuitive descriptions combined with the artfully presented, detailed, and quantitatively rendered illustrations."-- Matthew Grayson, Northeastern University

"The author is eloquent and presents complex material in a logical sequence, which provides for comparatively easy reading. I find the many numerical examples (including the MatLab scripts) particularly useful from a pedagogical perspective since they invite students to become more actively engaged with the novel material and concepts. In addition, they provide visual support for some otherwise abstract mathematical relationships."--Godi Fischer, University of Rhode Island

Table of Contents

    Contents
    PART I INTRODUCTION TO SEMICONDUCTORS
    1 lNTRODUCTION TO CRYSTALS AND CURRENT CARRIERS
    IN SEMICONDUCTORS, THE ATOMIC-BOND MODEL
    1.1 INTRODUCTION TO CRYSTALS
    1.1.1 Atomic Bonds
    1.1.2 Three-Dimensional Crystals
    1.1.3 Two-Dimensional Crystals: Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes
    1.2 CURRENT CARRIERS
    1.2.1 Two Types of Current Carriers in Semiconductors
    1.2.2 N·Type and P-Type Doping
    1.2.3 Electroneutrality Equation
    1.2.4 Electron and Hole Generation and Recombination in Thermal Equilibrium
    1.3 BASICS OF CRYSTAL GROWTH AND DOPING TECHNIQUES
    1.3.1 Crystal-Growth Techniques
    1.3.2 Doping Techniques
    Summary
    Problems
    Review Questions

    2 THE ENERGY-BAND MODEL
    12.1 ELECTRONS AS WAVES
    2.1.1 De Broglie Relationship Between Particle and Wave Properties
    2.1.2 Wave Function and Wave Packet
    2.1.3 Schrodinger Equation
    2.2 ENERGY LEVELS IN ATOMS AND ENERGY BANDS IN CRYSTALS
    2.2.1 Atomic Structure
    2.2.2 Energy Bands in Metals
    2.2.3 Energy Gap and Energy Bands in Semiconductors and Insulators
    12.3 ELECTRONS AND HOLES AS PARTICLES
    2.3.1 Effective Mass and Real E-k Diagrams
    2.3.2 The Question of Electron Size: The Uncertainty Principle
    2.3.3 Density of Electron States
    2.4 POPULATION OF ELECTRON STATES, CONCENTRATIONS OF
    ELECTRONS A:"D HOLES
    2.4.1 Fermi-Dirac Distribution
    2.4.2 Maxwell-Boltzmann Approximation and Effective Density of States
    2.4.3 Fermi Potential and Doping
    2.4.4 Nonequilibrium Carrier Concentrations and Quasi-Fermi Levels
    Summary
    Problems
    Review Questions

    3 DRIFT
    3.1 ENERGY BANDS WITH APPLIED ELECTRIC FIELD
    3.1.1 Energy-Band Presentation of Drift Current
    3.1.2 Resistance and Power Dissipation due to Carrier Scattering
    3.2 OHM'S LAW, SHEET RESISTANCE, AND CONDUCTIVITY
    3.2.1 Designing Integrated-Circuit Resistors
    3.2.2 Differential Form of Ohm's Law
    3.2.3 Conductivity Ingredients
    3.3 CARRIER MOBILITY
    3.3.1 Thermal and Drift Velocities
    3.3.2 Mobility Definition
    3.3.3 Scattering Time and Scattering Cross Section
    3.3.4 Mathieson's Rule
    °3.3.5 Hall Effect
    Summary
    Problems
    Review Questions

    4 DlFFUSION
    4.1 DIFFUSION-CURRENT EQUATION
    4.2 DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT
    4.2.1 Einstein Relationship
    BL4.2.2 Haynes-Shockley Experiment
    4.2.3 Arrhenius Equation
    4.3 BASIC CONTINUITY EQUATION
    Summary
    Problems
    Review Questions

    5 GENERATION AND RECOMBINATION
    5.1 GENERATION AND RECOMBINATION MECHANISMS
    5.2 GENERAL FORM OF THE CONTINUITY EQUATION
    5.2.1 Recombination and Generation Rates
    5.2.2 Minority-Carrier Lifetime
    5.2.3 Diffusion Length
    5.3 GENERATION AND RECOMBINATION PHYSICS AND SHOCKLEYREAD-
    HALL (SRH) THEORY
    5.3.1 Capture and Emission Rates in Thermal Equilibrium
    5.3.2 Steady-State Equation for the Effective Thermal Generation/Recombination
    Rate
    5.3.3 Special Cases
    5.3.4 Surface Generation and Recombination
    Summary
    Problems
    Review Questions

    PART II FUNDAMENTAL DEVICE STRUCTURES
    6 P-N JUNCTION
    6.1 P-N JUNCTION PRINCIPLES
    6.1.1 p-~ Junction in Thermal Equilibrium
    6.1.2 Reverse-Biased P-N Junction
    6.1.3 Forward-Biased P-K Junction
    6.1.4 Breakdown Phenomena
    6.2 DC MODEL
    6.2.1 Basic Current-Voltage (I-V) Equation
    6.2.2 Important Second-Order Effects
    6.2.3 Temperature Effects
    6.3 CAPACITA CE OF REVERSE-BIASED P-:-I JUNCTION
    6.3.1 C-V Dependence
    6.3.2 Depletion-Layer Width: Solving the Poisson Equation
    6.3.3 SPICE Model for the Depletion-Layer Capacitance
    6.4 STORED-CHARGE EFFECTS
    6.4.1 Stored Charge and Transit Time
    6.4.2 Relationship Between the Transit Time and the Minority-Carrier
    Lifetime
    6.4.3 Switching Characteristics: Reverse-Recovery Time
    Summary
    Problems
    Review Questions

    7 METAL-SEMICONDUCTOR CONTACT AND MOS CAPACITOR
    7.1 METAL-SEMICONDUCTOR CONTACT
    7.1.1 Schottky Diode: Rectifying Metal-Semiconductor Contact
    7.1.2 Ohmic Metal-Semiconductor Contacts
    7.2 MOS CAPACITOR
    7.2.1 Properties of the Gate Oxide and the Oxide-Semiconductor Interface
    7.2.2 C-V Curve and the Surface-Potential Dependence on Gate Voltage
    7.2.3 Energy-Band Diagrams
    ·7.2.4 Flat4Band Capacitance and Debye Length
    Summary
    Problems
    Review Questions

    8 MOSFET
    8.1 MOSFET PRINCIPLES
    B.1.1 MOSFET Structure
    8.1.2 MOSFET as a Voltage-Controlled Switch
    B.1.3 The Threshold Voltage and the Body Effect
    B.1.4 MOSFET as a Voltage-Controlled Current Source: Mechanisms of
    Current Saturation
    8.2 PRINCIPAL CURRENT-VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS AND EQUATIONS
    8.2.1 SPICE LEVEL 1 Model
    8.2.2 SPICE LEVEL 2 Model
    8.2.3 SPICE LEVEL 3 Model: Principal Effects
    8.3 SECO:\D-OROER EFFECTS
    8.3.1 Mobility Reduction with Gate Voltage
    8.3.2 Velocity Saturation (Mobility Reduction with Drain Voltage)
    8.3.3 Finite Output Resistance
    8.3.4 Threshold-Voltage-Related Short-Channel Effects
    8.3.5 Threshold Voltage Related Narrow-Channel Effects
    8.3.6 Subthreshold Current
    8.4 Nanoscale MOSFETs
    8.4.1 Down-Scaling Benefits and Rules
    8.4.2 Leakage Currents
    8.4.3 Advanced MOSFETs
    "8.5 MOS-BASED MEMORY DEVICES
    8.5.1 1C1T DRAM Cell
    8.5.2 Flash-Memory Cell
    Summary
    Problems
    Review Questions

    9 BJT
    9.1 B.JT PRINCIPLES
    9.1.1 BJT as a Voltage-Controlled Current Source
    9.1.2 BJT Currents and Gain Definitions
    9.1.3 Dependence of ? and ? Current Gains on Technological Parameters
    9.1.4 The Four Modes of Operation: BJT as a Switch
    9.1.5 Complementary BJT
    9.1.6 BJT Versus MOSFET
    9.2 PRINCIPAL CURRENT-VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS, EBERE-MOLL
    MODEL IN SPICE
    9.2.1 Injection Version
    9.2.2 Transport Version
    9.2.3 SPICE Version
    9.3 SECOND·ORDER EFFECTS
    9.3.1 Early Effect: Finite Dynamic Output Resistance
    9.3.2 Parasitic Resistances
    9.3.3 Dependence of Common-Emitter Current Gain on Transistor Current:
    Low-Current Effects
    9.3.4 Dependence of Common-Emitter Current Gain on Transistor Current:
    Gummel-Poon Model for High-Current Effects
    9.4 HETEROJUNCTION BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR
    Summary
    Problems
    Review Questions

    PART III SUPPLEMENTARY TOPICS
    10 PHYSICS OF NANOSCALE DEVICES
    10.1 SINGLE-CARRIER EVENTS
    10.1.1 Beyond the Classical Principle of Continuity
    10.1.2 Current-Time Form of Uncertainty Principle
    10.1.3 Carrier-Supply Limit to Diffusion Current
    10.1.4 Spatial Uncertainty
    10.1.5 Direct Nonequilibrium Modeling of Single-Carrier Events
    10.2 TWO-DIMENSIONAL TRANSPORT IN MOSFETs AND HEMTs
    10.2.1 Quantum Confinement
    10.2.2 HEMT Structure and Characteristics
    10.2.3 Application of Classical MOSFET Equations to Two-Dimensional
    Transport in MOSFETs and HEMTs
    10.3 ONE-DIMENSUIONAL TRANSPORT IN NANOWIRES AND CARBON
    NANOTUBES
    10.3.1 Ohmic Transport in Nanowire and Carbon-Nanotube FETs
    10.3.2 One-Dimensional Ballistic Transport and the Quantum Conductance
    Limit
    Summary
    Problems
    Review Questions

    II DEVICE ELECTRONICS, EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS A D SPICE
    PARAMETERS
    lI.l DIODES
    11.1.1 Static Model and Parameters in SPICE
    11.1.2 Large-Signal Equivalent Circuit in SPICE
    11.1.3 Parameter Measurement
    11.1.4 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit
    ll.2 MOSFET
    11.2.1 Static Model and Parameters; LEVEL 3 in SPICE
    11.2.2 Parameter Measurement
    11.2.3 Large-Signal Equivalent Circuit and Dynamic Parameters in SPICE
    11.2.4 Simple Digital ~1od.el
    11.2.5 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit
    11.3 BJT
    11.3.1 Static Model and Parameters: Ebers-Moll and Gummel-Poon Levels
    in SPICE
    11.3.2 Parameter Measurement
    11.3.3 Large-Signal Equivalent Circuit and Dynamic Parameters in SPICE
    11.3.4 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit
    Summary
    Problems
    Review Questions

    12 PHOTONIC DEVICES
    12.1 LIGHT EMITTING DIODES (LED)
    12.2 PHOTODETECTORS AND SOLAR CELLS
    12.2.1 Biasing for Photodetector and Solar-Cell Applications
    12.2.2 Carrier Generation in Photodetectors and Solar Cells
    12.2.3 Photocurrent Equation
    12.3 LASERS
    12.3.1 Stimulated Emission, Inversion Population, and Other Fundamental Concepts
    12.3.2 A Typical Heterojunction Laser
    Summary
    Problems
    Review Questions

    13 JFET AND MESFET
    13.1 JFET
    13.1.1 JFET Structure
    13.1.2 JFET Characteristics
    13.1.3 SPICE Model and Parameters
    13.2 MESFET
    13.2.1 MESFET Structure
    13.2.2 MESFET Characteristics
    13.2.3 SPICE Model and Parameters
    Summary
    Problems
    Review Questions

    14 POWER DEVICES
    14.1 POWER DIODES
    14.1.1 Drift Region in Power Devices
    14.1.2 Switching Characteristics
    14.1.3 Schottky Diode
    14.2 POWER MOSFET
    14.3 IGBT
    14.4 THYRISTOR
    Summary
    Problems
    Review Questions

    15 NEGATIVE RESISTANCE DIODES
    15.1 AMPLIFICATION AI'D OSCILLATION BY NEGATIVE DYNAMIC
    RESISTANCE
    15.2 GUNN DIODE
    15.3 IMPATT DIODE
    15.4 TUNNEL DIODE
    Summary
    Problems
    Review Questions

    16 INTEGRATED-CIRCUIT TECHNOLOGIES
    16.1 A DIODE IN IC TECHNOLOGY
    16.1.1 Basic Structure
    16.1.2 Lithography
    16.1.3 Process Sequence
    16.1.4 Diffusion Profiles
    16.2 MOSFET TECHNOLOGIES
    16.2.1 Local Oxidation of Silicon (LOCOS)
    16.2.2 NMOS Technology
    16.2.3 Basic CMOS Technology
    16.2.4 Silicon-on-Insulator (SOl) Technology
    16.3 BIPOLAR IC TECHNOLOGIES
    16.3.1 IC Structure of NPN BJT
    16.3.2 Standard Bipolar Technology Process
    16.3.3 Implementation of PNP BJTs, Resistors, Capacitors, and Diodes
    16.3.4 Parasitic IC Elements not Included in Device Models
    16.3.5 Layer Merging
    16.3.6 BiCMOS Technology
    Summary
    Problems
    Review Questions