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Cover

Oral Communication

Speaking Across Cultures

Eleventh Edition

Larry A. Samovar

Publication Date - January 2000

ISBN: 9780195329919

526 pages
Paperback

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $72.95

Noted for its clear and concise writing style, abundant use of examples, and logical organization, this text offers a straightforward, practical approach to public speaking.

Description

In the last 33 years this bestseller has met the needs of nearly one million students. The eleventh edition of Samovar's Oral Communication: Speaking Across Cultures offers a straightforward, practical approach to public speaking. The text is noted for its clear and concise writing style, abundant use of examples, and logical organization. Chapter sequencing allows students to begin making speeches within the first few days of class.

In addition to its core of rhetorical training, Oral Communication: Speaking Across Cultures continues to stake out new territory. This new edition links three contemporary developments to the context of public speaking:

* New technological advancements.
* Shifting ethnic and cultural patterns.
* An increased awareness of ethical issues.
Special features in the new edition include:

* The role of culture in listening, evidence, humor, credibility, small groups, audience analysis, and reasoning.
* A chapter on critical thinking.
* A discussion of ethics in each chapter.
* Material on the uses of electronic tools (such as the Internet) throughout the text.
* End-of-chapter discussion questions and exercises.
A comprehensive Instructor's Manual/Testing Program includes course guidelines, overviews, classroom activities, examination questions, and test item files (available in book form or on disk).

Previous Publication Date(s)

April 1998
June 1994
April 1990

Table of Contents

    Preface
    Part I: Preliminary Considerations
    1. Communication: Overview and Preview
    The Importance of Communication
    Communication and Democracy
    Communication and Careers
    Communication and Social Relationships
    Communication and Culture
    International Contacts
    Domestic Contacts
    Improving Communication
    The Communication Process
    Defining Communication
    The Ingredients of Communication
    Communication and Public Speaking
    Public Speaking and Writing
    Public Speaking and Conversation
    Ethical Responsibilities of Communication
    Some Working Principles
    Ethics and Public Speaking
    The Sender's Responsibilities
    The Receiver's Responsibilities
    Culture and Ethics
    Preview of Principles
    Organizing Ideas
    Presenting Ideas
    2. Your First Speeches: Getting Started
    Selecting a Topic
    Begin With Yourself
    Looking Elsewhere
    Important Considerations
    Narrowing a Topic
    Formulating a General Purpose
    Speech to Inform
    Speech to Persuade
    Speech to Entertain
    Formulating a Specific Purpose
    Choosing a Title
    Choosing a Method of Speaking
    Speaking From a Manuscript
    Speaking From Memory
    Impromptu Delivery
    Extemporaneous Delivery
    Using Notecards
    Practicing the Speech
    Gaining Confidence
    Understanding Communication Apprehension
    Dealing With Communication Apprehension
    3. Audience Analysis: Understanding Your Listeners
    The Importance of Audience Analysis
    Assessing the Audience
    What Listeners Bring to Communication
    Cultural Characteristics
    Religious Characteristics
    Age-Level Characteristics
    Gender Characteristics
    Occupational Characteristics
    Educational Characteristics
    Group Characteristics
    Geographical Characteristics
    Special Characteristics
    Gathering Information About the Audience
    Before the Speech
    During the Speech
    Analyzing the Speaking Occasion
    Kind of Occasion
    Physical Surroundings
    Time Culture and the Occasion
    Adapting to Your Audience
    Ask Rhetorical Questions
    Focus on the Audience
    Use Personal Pronouns
    Use the Experiences of the Audience
    4. Sound and Action: Presenting Your Ideas
    Visual Dimensions of Presentation
    General Appearance
    Facial Expression
    Eye Contact
    Movement
    The Use of Space
    Visual Dimensions and Culture
    Aural Dimensions of Presentation
    Loudness (Volume)
    Pitch Rate
    Distinctness (Articulation)
    Correctness (Pronunciation)
    Dialects
    Aural Dimensions and Culture
    Improving Your Speech Delivery
    Your Body
    Your Voice
    Your Confidence
    5. Listening: Evaluation and Criticism
    The Rewards of Listening
    The Process of Listening
    The Purposes of Listening
    Empathic Listening
    Informational Listening
    Evaluative Listening
    Appreciative Listening
    Misconceptions About Listening
    Hearing Versus Listening
    Objectivity Versus Subjectivity
    Active Versus Passive
    Listener Versus Speaker
    Change Versus Static
    Barriers to Listening
    Faking Attention
    Listening Only for Facts
    Avoiding Difficult Material
    Avoiding the Uninteresting
    Criticizing the Speaker
    Yielding to Distractions
    Defensive Listening
    Prejudice
    Constant Self-Focus
    Message Overload
    Thinking-Speaking Rate
    Short Attention Span
    Improving Listening
    Identify Personal Listening Characteristics
    Be Motivated to Listen
    Make Use of the Thinking-Speaking Time Difference
    Focus on Matter Rather Than Manner
    Be an Active Listener
    Ask Questions
    Use Vocal and Nonverbal Cues
    Practice
    Evaluating Speeches
    Purpose
    Substance
    Argument
    Structure
    Style
    Credibility
    Delivery
    Effects
    Presenting Your Evaluation
    Listener and Speaker Responsibilities
    Listener Responsibility
    Speaker Responsibility
    Culture and Listening
    Part II: Your Ideas
    6. Evidence: The Foundation of Your Ideas
    The Importance of Evidence
    Verbal Support
    Illustrations
    Specific Instances
    Statistics
    Testimony
    Analogy
    Other Forms of Verbal Support
    The Ethical Use of Evidence
    The Ethical Use of Statistics
    The Ethical Use of Testimony
    When to Use Verbal Support
    How to Use Verbal Support
    Direct Quotations and Paraphrases
    Transitions
    Visual Support
    The Role of Culture in the Use of Evidence
    7. Visual Aids: Displaying Your Ideas
    The Importance of Visual Aids
    Retention
    Support
    Clarity
    Organization
    Attention
    Credibility
    Culture
    Choosing the Appropriate Aid
    Specific Purpose
    Audience Size
    Audience Analysis
    Time, Money, Availability
    Expertise
    Nonelectronic Visual Aids
    People
    Objects
    Models
    Posters
    Maps
    Paintings and Drawings
    Photographs
    Charts and Graphs
    Chalkboards and Dry-Erase Boards
    Flip Charts
    Duplicated Material (Handouts)
    Electronic Visual Aids
    Slides
    Videotape
    Computer Arts
    CD-ROM
    Transparencies
    Audio Aids
    Preparing Visual Aids
    Using Visual Aids
    8. Research: The Content of Your Ideas
    Having a Research Agenda
    Start Early
    Decide on a Specific Purpose
    Use a Variety of Sources
    Select a Research Strategy
    Keep Complete and Accurate Records
    Systematically Organize Your Material
    Finding Material
    Personal Experience
    Interviews
    Writing, Phoning, Faxing, and E-mailing
    Visual Electronic Media
    Using the Library
    Using the Internet
    Recording Your Material
    Photocopying Material
    Being Accurate
    Citing Traditional Sources
    Citing Internet Sources
    Ethical Considerations in Conducting Research
    Evaluating Your Sources
    Avoiding Plagiarism
    Using Copyrighted Material
    9. Critical Thinking: The Appraisal of Your Ideas
    Personal Barriers to Critical Thinking
    Frozen Evaluations
    Self-Interest
    Ego-Defense
    Ethnocentrism
    Stereotyping
    Prejudice
    Detecting Fallacies
    Language Deceptions
    Extraneous Appeals
    Faulty Logic
    10. Organization: Assembling Your Ideas
    The Importance of Organization
    Core Statement
    Informative Core Statements
    Persuasive Core Statements
    Formulating Main Points and Subpoints
    Relationship to the Core Statement
    Separation from Other Main Points
    Collective Completeness of the Main Points
    Organizational Patterns
    Chronological Pattern
    Spatial Pattern
    Topical Pattern
    Cause-Effect Pattern
    Problem-Solution Pattern
    Level-of-Acceptance Pattern
    Motivated Sequence
    Organizational Patterns and Culture
    Outlining the Message
    Importance of Outlining
    Characteristics of Effective Outlines
    A Sample Outline
    Using Transitions
    11. Introductions and Conclusions: Connecting Your Ideas
    Preparing the Introduction
    Gaining Attention
    Guidelines in Using Introductions
    Preparing Your Audience for the Speech
    Justify the Topic
    Delimit the Topic
    Presenting Your Speaking Credentials (Establishing Credibility)
    Defining Your Terms
    Providing Background Information
    Establishing Common Ground
    Introductions and Culture
    Preparing the Conclusion
    Summary Quotations
    Illustration or Story
    Challenge
    Declaration of Intent
    Alluding to the Introduction
    Guidelines in Using Conclusions
    12. Language: The Medium of Your Ideas
    The Importance of Language
    Understanding How Language Works
    Words Are Only Symbols
    Words Have Many Uses
    Words Evoke Denotative and Connotative Meanings
    Words Convey a Partial Picture of Reality
    Words and Their Meanings Are Learned
    Words Reflect Our Experiences
    Language and Intercultural Communication
    Idioms
    Ambiguity
    Directness
    Loquacity
    Formality
    Characteristics of Effective Style
    Effective Style Is Clear
    Effective Style Observes the Rules of Grammar
    Effective Style Is Vivid
    Effective Style Is Appropriate
    Effective Style Is Free From Distractions
    Ethics and Language
    Be Accurate in Your Use of Words
    Be Aware of the Emotional Impact of Your Words
    Do Not Be Hateful in Your Use of Words
    Improving Your Language Habits
    Part III: Having an Influence
    13. Informative Speaking: Being Understood
    Basic Assumptions About Learning
    Motivation
    Coupling the Known With the Unknown
    Logical Sequence
    Repetition
    Multisensory Stimulation
    Communication Overload
    Depth
    Central Focus
    Types of Informative Speeches
    Instructions
    Descriptions
    Explanations
    Reports
    Preparing a Speech to Inform
    Determining A Purpose
    Choosing and Narrowing the Topic
    Gathering and Selecting Material
    The Materials of Informative Speaking
    Contributing to Clarity
    Contributing to Interest and Attention
    Organizing a Speech to Inform
    Introduction
    Body
    Conclusion
    Sample Outline
    14. Persuasive Speaking: Changing Beliefs, Attitudes, Values, and Behavior
    Defining Persuasion
    Types of Persuasive Speeches
    Speech to Convince
    Speech to Actuate
    Speech to Stimulate
    The Goals of Persuasive Speaking
    Beliefs
    Attitudes
    Values
    Behaviors
    Concerns of Persuasion
    Questions of Fact
    Questions of Value
    Questions of Policy
    Preparing a Persuasive Speech
    Choosing a Topic
    Formulating a Specific Purpose
    Analyzing an Audience
    Finding Material
    Convincing Arguments
    Impelling Psychological Appeals
    Using Motive
    Appeals
    Our Desire to Maintain Consistency
    Our Susceptibility to Suggestion
    Personal Credibility
    Organizing a Persuasive Speech
    Introduction
    Body
    Conclusion
    Designing the Persuasive Speech
    Problem-Solution Pattern
    Monroe's Motivated Sequence
    Deduction Induction
    Persuasive Strategies
    Placing Ideas
    Deciding Which Argument to Place First
    Presenting Both Sides of the Argument
    Making Your Proposition Clear
    Combining Evidence With Emotional Appeals
    Culture and Persuasion
    Culture and Convincing Arguments
    Cultural Variations in the Use of Evidence
    The Quantity of Evidence Used
    Cultural Variations in Reasoning
    Cultural and Psychological Appeals
    Culture and Personal Credibility
    Persuasion and Ethics
    Part IV: Changing Environments
    15. Special Occasions: The Unique Communication Situation
    Impromptu Speech
    Preparing an Impromptu Speech
    Delivering an Impromptu Speech
    Manuscript Speech
    Preparing a Manuscript Speech
    Delivering a Manuscript Speech
    Entertaining Speeches
    Characteristics of the Entertaining Speech
    Using Humor
    Developing an Entertaining Speech
    Television Speeches
    Television's Unique Features
    Preparing for Television
    Presenting Yourself on Television
    Controlling Nervousness
    Practicing Your Television Prevention
    Ethical Considerations and Television
    Speeches of Introduction
    Question-and-Answer Sessions
    Ways to Formulate an Effective Reply
    Organizing a Reply
    16. Discussion: Group Communication
    The Importance of Group Communication
    Speech Communication and Group Communication
    Types of Group Discussion
    Public Discussion
    Private Discussion
    Characteristics of Problem-Solving Groups
    Cooperation Analysis and Investigation
    Subjectivity and Objectivity
    Reflective Thinking
    Skepticism
    Group Cohesion
    Group Norms
    Democratic Process
    Preparing for Discussion
    Selecting a Subject
    Wording the Subject
    Gathering Material
    Organizing a Discussion
    Recognizing and Defining the Problem
    Description of the Problem
    Discovery of Possible Solutions
    Evaluation of Solutions and Acceptance of the Best Solution
    Plan of Action
    Brainstorming as an Organizational Pattern
    Impromptu Speech
    Preparing an Impromptu Speech
    Delivering an Impromptu Speech
    Manuscript Speech
    Preparing a Manuscript Speech
    Delivering a Manuscript Speech
    Entertaining Speeches
    Characteristics of the Entertaining Speech
    Using Humor
    Developing an Entertaining Speech
    Television Speeches
    Television's Unique Features
    Preparing for Television
    Presenting Yourself on Television
    Controlling Nervousness
    Practicing Your Television Prevention
    Ethical Considerations and Television
    Speeches of Introduction
    Question-and-Answer Sessions
    Ways to Formulate an Effective Reply
    Organizing a Reply
    16. Discussion: Group Communication
    The Importance of Group Communication
    Speech Communication and Group Communication
    Types of Group Discussion
    Public Discussion
    Private Discussion
    Characteristics of Problem-Solving Groups
    Cooperation Analysis and Investigation
    Subjectivity and Objectivity
    Reflective Thinking
    Skepticism
    Group Cohesion
    Group Norms
    Democratic Process
    Preparing for Discussion
    Selecting a Subject
    Wording the Subject
    Gathering Material
    Organizing a Discussion
    Recognizing and Defining the Problem
    Description of the Problem
    Discovery of Possible Solutions
    Evaluation of Solutions and Acceptance of the Best Solution
    Plan of Action
    Brainstorming as an Organizational Pattern
    Participating in Small Groups
    Functional and Task Roles
    Maintenance and Supportive Roles
    Presenting Your Ideas
    Leadership in Small Groups
    Leadership Tasks
    Leadership and Culture
    Dealing With Conflict
    Definition of Conflict
    Causes of Conflict
    Managing Conflict
    Conflict and Culture
    Barriers to Discussion
    Apathy
    Excessive Formality
    Control
    Dogmatism
    Lack of Patience
    Groupthink
    The Role of Culture in Group Communication
    Individualism or Collectivism
    Conformity
    Use of Language
    Use of Time
    Compromise
    Group Norms
    Decision Making
    Uncertainty and Ambiguity
    Nonverbal Communication
    Taking Part in a Videoconference
    The Characteristics of a Videoconference
    Preparing for a Videoconference
    Participating in a Videoconference
    Evaluating a Discussion
    Index