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Cover

Marine Biology

Function, Biodiversity, Ecology

Fourth Edition

Jeffrey S. Levinton

Publication Date - July 2013

ISBN: 9780199857128

576 pages
Paperback
8-1/2 x 11 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $134.95

The most captivating, accessible, and comprehensive book of its kind

Description


DISTINCTIVE FEATURES

* Examines marine biology from a unique global and evolutionary perspective

* Written in a clear, conversational style

* Filled with full-color photographs from the world's finest marine biologists

* Robust pedagogy includes "Key Concept" headings, "Basic Facts" summaries, "Going Deeper" boxes, end-of-chapter exercises, and more


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SUPPLEMENTS

Companion Website (www.oup.com/us/levinton): Maintained by the author, this comprehensive resource offers students cited references, "Key Concept" summaries, "Marine Biology Explorations" interactive tours, news updates, helpful review and study tools, and more. For adopting instructors, the site offers password-protected PowerPoint-based lecture notes and downloadable images from the text.

Instructor's Resource CD-ROM: Available to adopting instructors, the CD includes all of the resources listed above along with a Test Bank of approximately 400 questions.

New to this Edition

  • * Expanded coverage of ecological interactions, global climate change, methods of environmental assessment, and human impact on biodiversity
  • * Seven brand-new "Hot Topics in Marine Biology" essays
  • * More than fifty new photographs and line drawings
  • * A new discussion on the use of marine natural products in the development of drugs

About the Author(s)

Jeffrey S. Levinton is Distinguished Professor of Ecology and Evolution at Stony Brook University.

Previous Publication Date(s)

December 2008
March 2001
October 1995

Reviews

"Levinton's book is easy to follow yet challenging and is at a perfect level for undergraduate biology majors." --Jayson Smith, California State University, Fullerton

"Highly enjoyable to read. Levinton's writing is engaging and approachable. I am impressed by his ability to weave in examples that support the concepts. The book provides greater breadth of coverage than comparable texts, and the description of climate change is excellent and current." --Fiona M. Harper, Rollins College

"There is a nice use of specific experimental examples to illustrate concepts. The inclusion of new data on climate change and ocean acidification, along with the new examples of fisheries and aquaculture biology, are very much appreciated." --Karen Martin, Pepperdine University

Table of Contents

    PART I: PRINCIPLES OF OCEANOGRAPHY AND MARINE ECOLOGY

    Chapter 1. Sounding the Deep
    Marine Biology as a Discipline
    Historical Background of Marine Biology
    Observation and Hypothesis Testing
    Habitats and Life Habits: Some Definitions

    Chapter 2. The Oceanic Environment
    The Open Oceans and Marginal Seas
    Topography and Structure of the Ocean Floor
    The Ocean Above the Seabed
    Circulation in the Open Sea: Patterns and Causes
    Seawater Density and Deep Circulation
    The Greenhouse Effect and Changing Ocean Climate
    Hypothesized Effects of Climate Change on Sea Level, Circulation, and Ocean Chemistry
    The Edge of the Sea

    Chapter 3. Ecological and Evolutionary Principles of Marine Biology
    Ecological Interactions
    The Ecological Hierarchy
    Interactions on the Scale of Individuals
    The Population Level
    The Community Level: Structure and Interspecies Interactions
    The Ecosystem Level
    Species, Genetic Variation, Evolution, and Biogeography

    PART II: MARINE ORGANISMS: FUNCTION AND ENVIRONMENT

    Chapter 4. The Chemical and Physical Environment
    Measures of Physiological Performance
    Temperature
    HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 4.1 Global Warming: How Can We Tell If We Are at the Edge?
    Salinity
    Oxygen
    Light

    Chapter 5. Life in a Fluid Medium
    Introduction
    Density, Viscosity, and Reynolds Number
    GOING DEEPER 5.1 Is Seawater Always Seawater? A Tale from the Regions of Intermediate Reynolds Number
    Moving Water
    Water Moving over Surfaces and Obstructions, Such as Organisms
    Using Water Motion for Biological Advantage
    HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 5.1 Flow Is a Drag, but It Sure Can Smell Good

    Chapter 6. Reproduction, Dispersal, and Migration
    Ecological and Evolutionary Factors in Sex
    HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 6.1 A Lover and a Fighter
    Reproduction, Demography, and Life Cycles
    Migration
    HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 6.2 Great Oceanic Migrations that Dwarf the Serengeti
    Larval Dispersal: The Long and the Short Haul
    The Microscale: Larval Settlement, Metamorphosis, and Early Juvenile Survival
    The Mesoscale: Transport by Currents, Loss of Larvae, and Retention Mechanisms
    HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 6.3 How to Get a Free Ride Out to Sea
    Planktonic Larvae: Getting Through Major Obstacles to the Final Destination
    The Macroscale: Major Separations Lead to Biogeographic Structure
    Planktonic Dispersal: Why Do They Do It?

    PART III: ORGANISMS OF THE OPEN SEA

    Chapter 7. Plankton
    Introduction and Definitions
    Marine Bacteria and Archaea
    Eukaryotic Phytoplankton
    Zooplankton
    Life in the Open Sea
    Defense Against Predation
    HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 7.1 Bioluminescence, Night Vision, and Death in the Deep
    Diurnal Vertical Migration of the Zooplankton
    Molecular Techniques to Identify Planktonic Microorganismal Diversity
    GOING DEEPER 7.1 DNA: The Basics

    Chapter 8. Marine Vertebrates and Other Nekton
    Cephalopods
    Fish
    Mammals
    HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 8.1 Whales and Wonder Dogs
    Marine Birds and Reptiles
    HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 8.2 Last March of the Penguins? Climate Change and a Bottom-Up Trophic Cascade

    PART IV: PATTERNS AND PROCESSES IN THE WATER COLUMN

    Chapter 9. Processes in the Open Sea
    Critical Factors in Plankton Abundance
    Patchiness of the Plankton
    The Seasonal Pattern of Plankton Abundance
    Water Column Parameters and the Spring Diatom Increase
    Light
    GOING DEEPER 9.1 The Basics of Photosynthesis
    Nutrients Required by Phytoplankton
    Rate of Nutrient Uptake
    Harmful Algal Blooms
    HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 9.1 Angry Birds and Lost Seals: Solution of the Effects of a Mysterious Poison
    Phytoplankton Succession and the Paradox of Phytoplankton Coexistence
    The Microbial Loop: Nutrient Cycling by Viruses, Heterotrophs and Chemoautotrophs
    Zooplankton Grazing in the Sea
    GOING DEEPER 9.2 Quantification of the Effect of Grazing

    Chapter 10. Productivity, Food Webs, and Global Climate Change
    Productivity, Food Webs, and Global Climate Change
    Productivity and Biomass
    Food Chains and Food Webs
    Measuring Primary Productivity
    GOING DEEPER 10.1 How to Calculate Productivity, Using the Oxygen Technique
    GOING DEEPER 10.2 Using the Radiocarbon Technique to Estimate Productivity
    Geographic Distribution of Primary Productivity
    Global Climate Change and the Global Carbon Pump
    Climate Change: Some Records and Effects on Oceanic Processes

    PART V: ORGANISMS OF THE SEABED

    Chapter 11. Benthic
    Microorganisms, Seaweeds, and Sea Grasses
    The Big Picture: Domains of Life
    Bacteria
    Eukarya
    Marine Protists, Fungi, and Multicellular Algae
    Single-Celled Forms of Eukarya
    Diatoms
    Fungi
    Seaweeds
    Sea Grasses

    Chapter 12. The Diversity of Benthic Marine Invertebrates
    HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 12.1 From Where Did All This Invertebrate Diversity Come?
    Kingdom Protista: Single-Celled Organisms
    Phylum Porifera: Sponges, Simplest of Animals
    Phylum Cnidaria: Hydrozoans, Jellyfish, Anemones, and Corals
    Phylum Platyhelminthes: Flatworms
    Phylum Nemertea: Ribbon Worms
    Phylum Nematoda: The Roundworms
    Phylum Annelida: Segmented Worms
    Phylum Sipuncula: Peanut Worms
    Phylum Ponogonophora: Gutless Wonders
    Phylum Mollusca: Shelled Invertebrates (Mostly)
    Phylum Arthropoda: Jointed Appendages
    The Lophophorate Phyla
    Phylum Bryozoa: Moss Animals
    Phylum Brachiopoda: Lingulas and Lampshells
    Phylum Phoronida: Wormlike Animals with a Lophophore
    Phylum Echinodermata: Animals with Fivefold Symmetry
    Phylum Chordata: The Sea Squirts

    Chapter 13. Benthic Life Habits
    Life Habit Classification
    Life in Mud and Sand
    GOING DEEPER 13.1 Measuring Grain Size of Sediments
    Soft Sediments and the Role of Burrowers in Sedimentary Structure
    Deposit Feeding in Soft Sediments
    Suspension Feeding
    Life Habits on Hard Surfaces and in Moving Waters
    Benthic Carnivores
    HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 13.1 Diary of a Stinging Snail
    Benthic Herbivores

    PART VI: COASTAL BENTHIC ENVIRONMENTS

    Chapter 14. The Tidelands Rocky Shores, Soft-Substratum Shores, Marshes, Mangroves, Estuaries, and Oyster Reefs
    Rocky Shores and Exposed Beaches
    Soft-Sediment Interactions in Protected Intertidal Areas
    HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 14.1 The Powerful Interaction of Invasion and Climate Change
    Spartina Salt Marshes
    HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 14.2 The Molecular Sleuth, Part I: Invasion of a Very Aggressive Genotype
    Mangrove Forests
    Estuaries
    Oyster Reefs

    Chapter 15. Sea Grass Beds, Rocky Reefs, Kelp Forests, and Coral Reefs
    Sea Grass Beds
    The Rocky Reef-Kelp Forest System
    HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 15.1 Reorganization of a Rocky Subtidal Ecosystem: A Cod and Lobster Tale
    Subtidal Rocky Reefs
    Kelp Forests
    Coral Reefs

    PART VII: FROM THE SHELF TO THE DEEP SEA

    Chapter 16. From the Continental Shelf to the Deep Sea
    The Subtidal Landscape
    Sampling the Subtidal Soft-Bottom Benthos
    Sediment Type and Benthic Distribution
    The Deep-Sea Gradient
    The Shelf-Deep-Sea Gradient
    Deep-Sea Biodiversity
    Deep-Sea Island Hotspots of High Diversity
    Cold-Water Deep Coral Mounds
    Seamounts
    Hot-Vent Environments, Cold Seeps, and Whale-Fish Falls
    Pressure Change
    Polar Environments
    Arctic Subtidal Polar Environments
    The Antarctic Shelf Benthos - A Special Case of Isolation

    Chapter 17. Biodiversity and Conservation of the Ocean
    Diversity, Speciation, Extinction, and Biogeographic Factors
    Major Gradients of Species Diversity
    Explanations of Regional Diversity Differences
    Conserving Marine Biodiversity
    Marine Invasions

    PART VIII. HUMAN IMPACT ON THE SEA

    Chapter 18. Fisheries and Food from the Sea
    The Fishery Stock and Its Variability
    Stocks and Markers
    Life History and Stock Size
    Stock Health and Production
    GOING DEEPER 18.1 A Simple Model to Explain the Maximum Sustainable Yield
    Fishing Techniques and Their Effects
    Fisheries Impact and Management
    Hot Topics in Marine Biology 18.1 Is Fisheries Policy at Odds with Managing Marine Ecosystems?
    Causes and Cures of Stock Reduction
    GOING DEEPER 18.2 Age-Based or Life-History Stage-Based Population Models
    Overexploitation of Whales: A Case History
    Other Types of Degradation
    Disease as a Major Danger to Coastal Fisheries
    Mariculture
    Drugs from the Sea: Marine Natural Products

    Chapter 19. Environmental Impacts of Industrial Activities and Human Populations
    Human Effects on the Marine Environment
    Measuring the Impact of Pollutants on Populations and Communities
    Toxic Substances
    HOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 19.1 Is the Gulf of Mexico Adapted to Oil?
    Nutrient Input and Eutrophication
    Thermal Pollution and Power Station Fish Mortality
    Global Environmental Change and the Ocean

    GLOSSARY

    MARINE BIOLOGY JOURNALS

    INDEX

Teaching Resources

  • Companion Website (www.oup.com/us/levinton): Maintained by the author, this comprehensive resource offers students cited references, "Key Concept" summaries, "Marine Biology Explorations" interactive tours, news updates, helpful review and study tools, and more. For adopting instructors, the site offers password-protected PowerPoint-based lecture notes and downloadable images from the text.
  • Instructor's Resource CD-ROM: Available to adopting instructors, the CD includes all of the resources listed above along with a Test Bank of approximately 400 questions.

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