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Cover

Logic

Second Edition

Stan Baronett

Publication Date - July 2012

ISBN: 9780199846313

736 pages
Paperback
7-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $92.95

The first text to make logic relevant, interesting, and accessible to today's students, by bridging both formal and informal logic to real life

Description

Featuring an exceptionally clear writing style and a wealth of real-world examples and exercises, Logic, Second Edition, shows how logic relates to everyday life, demonstrating its applications in such areas as the workplace, media and entertainment, politics, science and technology, student life, and elsewhere.

Thoroughly revised and expanded in this second edition, the text now features 2600 exercises, more than 1000 of them new; three new chapters on legal arguments, moral arguments, and analyzing a long essay; enhanced pedagogy; and much more.

FEATURES

* 2600 exercises--more than 1000 of them new--breathe new life into logic

* Real-world examples help bring logic down to earth for students

* A unique, extended explanation or model of the answer to the first question of each "Check Your Understanding" section shows students what is expected of their answers

* An additional 25% of the exercises are answered at the back of the book

* "Profiles in Logic" provide short sketches of logicians, philosophers, mathematicians, and others associated with logic

* "Logic Challenge" problems present puzzles and paradoxes that end each chapter on a fun note

* Additional pedagogical elements--marginal definitions, key terms, a glossary, reference boxes, and bulleted chapter summaries--make the material even more accessible

* Detailed guides help students learn to create "truth tables" and Venn diagrams


SUPPORT PACKAGE

An Instructor's Manual with Computerized Test Bank on CD includes:

Solutions to all exercises in the book, enhanced by explanations and answers that elucidate the details of the correct answers

Key Terms and a summary for each chapter

A customizable Computerized Test Bank--with multiple-choice, true/false, and fill-in-the-blank questions--that allows instructors to give exams or homework problems that can be auto-graded

A traditional "pencil-and-paper" Test Bank and answer key containing the same questions as the Computerized Test Bank

PowerPoint-based lecture outlines

The Instructor's Manual with Computerized Test Bank and the traditional Test Bank are also available in printed format.

A Companion Website offers:

Instructor Resources (password-protected):

A downloadable version of the Instructor's Manual (except for the Test Bank and the exercise solutions)

PowerPoint-based lecture outlines

Student Resources:

Brief chapter summaries

Interactive Flash Cards with key terms and definitions

Web links and other media resources

Practice quizzes with answers and explanations (includes questions answered in the book and new, original questions)

The Learning Management System Cartridges include, in a fully downloadable format:

Instructor's Manual and Computerized Test Bank (exams and homework problems can be auto-graded)

Student material from the companion website


The Perfect Text for Your Course . . . No Matter How You Teach It

Your course is unique; you have your own teaching philosophy and style. Whether you teach traditional Introduction to Logic, Critical Thinking/Informal Logic, or Formal Logic, Baronett: Logic, Second Edition, can be tailored to fulfill your course needs.

We'll make it easy for you; choose one of our Alternate Editions or build the book you want, chapter by chapter.

Option 1. Author Stan Baronett has suggested four Alternate Editions that may work for you. Each Alternate Edition comes in full color, with answers to problems, a full glossary, and an index. The books are in stock and available for ordering. Please see the ISBN information below.

Logic: Concise Edition
Chapters 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Order using ISBN: 978-0-19-994129-2

Logic: An Emphasis on Critical Thinking and Informal Logic
Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 10, 11, 12, 13 A-E, 14, 15
Order using ISBN: 978-0-19-994128-5

Logic: An Emphasis on Formal Logic
Chapters 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
Order using ISBN: 978-0-19-994126-1

Logic: With Diagramming used in Chapter 4. Informal Fallacies
Full text
Order using ISBN: 978-0-19-997081-0


Option 2. Create your own customized textbook by choosing the specific chapters that you need for your course. Please contact your Oxford University Press Sales Representative or call 800.280.0280 for details.

New to this Edition

  • This second edition is a major reorientation and expansion of the previous edition. The first edition erred on the side of a short text, turning its back on the full bridge to formal reasoning, as well as not using actual quotes as real-world examples. We have kept it vivid while taking it fully into the mainstream. It now includes separate chapters on logical fallacies, moral reasoning, and other topics that were omitted from the first edition.
  • Unique and enhanced coverage: The relevance is clear right from the ToC, in its four-part structure with full parts (after
  • - Chapter 1 again leaps right into the real world, motivating the need for logic through the deluge of information on the Web and then intuitive reasoning.
  • - Earlier coverage of "Logic and Language" (Chapter 2), fuller coverage of fallacies (Chapter 4), and more examples of translating from ordinary language (Chapters 6-9) help bridge formal and informal logic.
  • - Chapter 3 has beefed up coverage of fallacies, for a fuller range of applications. A version of this chapter without diagrams (student learning aids) is now available for greater instructor flexibility.
  • - Fuller coverage of categorical and truth-functional logic (Chapters 4-9) allows greater instructor flexibility.
  • - Six full chapters on inductive logic (Chapters 10-16) give separate, flexible attention to such real-world applications as analogical, legal, moral, statistical, and scientific arguments, plus "The Long Essay."
  • - Three NEW chapters: Chapter 11, Legal Arguments; Chapter 12, Moral Arguments; and Chapter 15, Analyzing a Long Essay.
  • - Chapter 16 on scientific arguments now discusses inference to the best explanation and science and superstition.
  • - The early chapters build from simple examples before rolling out complex arguments, which conclude in a NEW final chapter on
  • More pedagogy:
  • - Heavily applied examples and applications, in text and display quotes, have been updated for currency.
  • - Real-world examples refer to contemporary issues from unemployment and the recession to a possible gene for violence and whether the world is coming to an end.
  • - Examples also refer often to culture and technology, including cell phones, DVDs, and the Web.
  • - NEW to this edition, many examples are actual quotes from print and other sources.
  • - Chapters NOW open with an extended real-world example for greater student interest. For example, after opening with the media deluge (
  • - The use of reference boxes has been expanded to capture material that is spread out over a number of pages in one place for easy reference, offering running summaries throughout the chapters.
  • - "Profiles in Logic" boxes give biographical sketches of key logicians and philosophers, both men and women.
  • - Numerous diagrams illustrate the major concepts. Art, especially Venn diagrams, will make more pedagogical use of full color.
  • - The adoption of more standard terminology, as well as clearer and more accurate definitions of terms and concepts.
  • - Key terms appear in a running glossary for quick reference, as well as in a list at end of chapter before the chapter summary.
  • - Bulleted summaries are provided at the end of each chapter.
  • - Over 1000 new exercises have been added at the end of sections, targeting Hurley's count of 2,600. More than a third are answered and worked out in the appendix.
  • - The much expanded exercise sets have been renamed Check Your Understanding to emphasize to students that they should use these sections to see what they have learned and where they need to do more work. They now also include a solution to the first problem in each set.
  • - Twenty-five percent of the exercises have answers provided at the back of the book.
  • - Chapters end with a unique additional "Logic Challenge," in the form of a story and a real puzzler. These problems end chapters on a fun note, with a reminder that the challenges of logic are always lurking in plain English.
  • - A foldout/tear-off card inside the back cover serves as a student resource and reference.
  • - A full glossary and index are placed at the end of the book.

About the Author(s)

Stan Baronett is the author of Logic, First Edition.

Previous Publication Date(s)

December 2007

Reviews

"Outstanding. Written in clear language, with wit and imagination. Baronett takes students through the theory of sound reasoning, types of logics, and logic applications in almost every kind of human discourse. This text is a useful, viable tool for building a bridge between formal logic and real-life situations."--Merle Harton, Everglades University

"The exposition is delightfully clear. The examples are thought-provoking, topical, copious, and well gradated by level of difficulty."--Frank X. Ryan, Kent State University

"Logic is terrific. We have needed a text with this approach [more effective in bridging formal to informal logic and logic to real-life situations] for a long time."--William S. Jamison, University of Alaska Anchorage

"The well-chosen and relevant examples are a major selling point. This book looks terrific."--Aeon Skoble,Bridgewater State University

"The author succeeds brilliantly in presenting the essence of logical reasoning throughout the text as a dynamic, integral part of daily human interaction rather than simply an academic discipline."--Joia Lewis Turner, St. Paul College

Table of Contents

    Each chapter ends with a Summary, Key Terms, and a Logic Challenge.
    PART I. SETTING THE STAGE
    CHAPTER 1. WHAT LOGIC STUDIES
    A. Statements and Arguments
    B. Recognizing Arguments
    Check Your Understanding 1B.1
    Check Your Understanding 1B.2
    C. Arguments and Explanations
    Check Your Understanding 1C
    D. Truth and Logic
    E. Deductive and Inductive Arguments
    Check Your Understanding 1E
    F. Deductive Arguments: Validity and Truth
    Logical Form
    Counterexamples
    Check Your Understanding 1F
    G. Inductive Arguments: Strength and Truth
    Techniques of Analysis
    Check Your Understanding 1G
    LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Problem of the Hats
    PART II. INFORMAL LOGIC
    CHAPTER 2. LANGUAGE MATTERS
    A. Intension and Extension
    Terms, Use, and Mention
    Two Kinds of Meaning
    Proper Names
    Check Your Understanding 2A
    B. Using Intensional Definitions
    Synonymous Definitions
    Word Origin Definitions
    Operational Definitions
    Definition by Genus and Difference
    C. Using Extensional Definitions
    Ostensive Definitions
    Enumerative Definitions
    Definition by Subclass
    Check Your Understanding 2C
    D. Applying Definitions
    Stipulative Definitions
    Lexical Definitions
    Functional Definitions
    Precising Definitions
    Theoretical Definitions
    Persuasive Definitions
    Check Your Understanding 2D
    E. Guidelines for Informative Definitions
    Check Your Understanding 2E
    F. Cognitive and Emotive Meaning
    Check Your Understanding 2F
    G. Factual and Verbal Disputes
    Check Your Understanding 2G
    LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Path
    CHAPTER 3. DIAGRAMS AND ANALYSIS
    A. The Basics of Diagramming Arguments
    Check Your Understanding 3A
    B. Incomplete Arguments
    Check Your Understanding 3B
    C. Rhetorical Language
    Rhetorical Questions
    Rhetorical Conditionals
    Rhetorical Disjunctions
    Check Your Understanding 3C
    D. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
    Check Your Understanding 3D
    LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Train to Vegas
    CHAPTER 4. INFORMAL FALLACIES
    A. Fallacies of Relevance
    1. Argument Against the Person
    2. Tu Quoque
    3. Appeal to the People
    4. Appeal to Pity
    5. Appeal to Force
    6. Appeal to Ignorance
    7. Missing the Point
    8. Appeal to an Unqualified Authority
    Summary of Fallacies of Relevance
    Check Your Understanding 4A
    B. Fallacies of Unwarranted Assumption
    9. Begging the Question
    10. Complex Question
    11. Biased Sample
    12. Accident
    13. Hasty Generalization
    14. Misleading Precision
    15. False Dichotomy
    16. False Dilemma
    17. Coincidence
    18. Post Hoc Fallacy
    19. Common Cause Fallacy
    20. Slippery Slope
    Summary of Fallacies of Unwarranted Assumption
    Check Your Understanding 4B
    C. Fallacies of Ambiguity or Diversion
    21. Equivocation
    22. Amphiboly
    23. Composition
    24. Division
    25. Emphasis
    26. Straw Man Fallacy
    27. Red Herring Fallacy
    Summary of Fallacies of Ambiguity or Diversion
    Check Your Understanding 4C
    D. Recognizing Fallacies in Ordinary Language
    Check Your Understanding 4D
    LOGIC CHALLENGE: A Clever Problem
    PART III. FORMAL LOGIC
    CHAPTER 5. CATEGORICAL PROPOSITIONS
    A. Categorical Propositions
    Check Your Understanding 5A
    B. Quantity, Quality, and Distribution
    Check Your Understanding 5B
    C. The Square of Opposition
    Check Your Understanding 5C
    D. Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition
    Conversion
    Obversion
    Contraposition
    Check Your Understanding 5D
    E. Existential Import
    F. The Modern Square of Opposition
    G. Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition Revisited
    Check Your Understanding 5G
    H. Venn Diagrams and the Traditional Square
    Check Your Understanding 5H
    I. Translating Ordinary Language into Categorical Propositions
    Missing Plural Nouns
    Nonstandard Verbs
    Singular Propositions
    Adverbs and Pronouns
    "It Is False That . . ."
    Implied Quantifiers
    Nonstandard Quantifiers
    Conditional Statements
    Exclusive Propositions
    "The Only"
    Propositions Requiring Two Translations
    Check Your Understanding 5I
    LOGIC CHALLENGE: Group Relationship
    CHAPTER 6. CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISMS
    A. Standard-Form Categorical Syllogisms
    B. Diagramming in the Modern Interpretation
    Diagramming A-propositions
    Diagramming E-propositions
    Diagramming I-propositions
    Diagramming O-propositions
    Wrapping Up the X
    Is the Syllogism Valid?
    Check Your Understanding 6B
    C. Diagramming in the Traditional Interpretation
    A-propositions
    E-propositions
    When Both Interpretations Give the Same Results
    Check Your Understanding 6C
    D. Mood and Figure
    Check Your Understanding 6D
    E. Rules and Fallacies
    Check Your Understanding 6E
    F. Ordinary Language Arguments
    Reducing the Number of Terms in an Argument
    Check Your Understanding 6F.1
    Paraphrasing Ordinary Language Arguments
    Categorical Propositions and Multiple Arguments
    Check Your Understanding 6F.2
    G. Enthymemes
    Check Your Understanding 6G
    H. Sorites
    Check Your Understanding 6H
    LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Four Circles
    CHAPTER 7. PROPOSITIONAL LOGIC
    A. Logical Operators and Translations
    Simple and Compound Statements
    Negation
    Conjunction
    Disjunction
    Conditional Statements
    Distinguishing "If" from "Only if"
    Biconditional
    Check Your Understanding 7A
    B. Complex Statements
    Well-Formed Formulas
    Check Your Understanding 7B.1
    Main Operator
    Check Your Understanding 7B.2
    Translations and the Main Operator
    Check Your Understanding 7B.3
    C. Truth Functions
    Defining the Five Logical Operators
    Negation
    Conjunction
    Disjunction
    Conditional
    Biconditional
    Check Your Understanding 7C
    Operator Truth Tables and Ordinary Language
    D. Truth Tables for Propositions
    Arranging the Truth Values
    The Order of Operations
    Check Your Understanding 7D.1
    Propositions with Assigned Truth Values
    Check Your Understanding 7D.2
    E. Contingent and Noncontingent Statements
    Tautology
    Self-Contradiction
    Check Your Understanding 7E
    F. Logical Equivalence
    Check Your Understanding 7F
    G. Contradictory, Consistent, and Inconsistent Statements
    Check Your Understanding 7G
    H. Truth Tables for Arguments
    Validity
    Technical Validity
    Check Your Understanding 7H
    I. Indirect Truth Tables
    Thinking Through An Argument
    A Shorter Truth Table
    Check Your Understanding 7I.1
    Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
    Argument Form
    Check Your Understanding 7I.2
    Examining Statements for Consistency
    Check Your Understanding 7I.3
    LOGIC CHALLENGE: A Card Problem
    CHAPTER 8. NATURAL DEDUCTION
    A. Natural Deduction
    B. Implication Rules I
    Modus Ponens (MP)
    Modus Tollens (MT)
    Hypothetical Syllogism (HS)
    Disjunctive Syllogism (DS)
    Justification--Applying the Rules of Inference
    Check Your Understanding 8B
    C. Tactics and Strategy
    Working Through a Proof
    Check Your Understanding 8C
    D. Implication Rules II
    Constructive Dilemma (CD)
    Simplification (Simp)
    Conjunction (Conj)
    Addition (Add)
    Check Your Understanding 8D
    E. Replacement Rules I
    De Morgan (DM)
    Commutation (Com)
    Association (Assoc)
    Distribution (Dist)
    Double Negation (DN)
    Check Your Understanding 8E
    F. Replacement Rules II
    Transposition (Trans)
    Material Implication (Impl)
    Material Equivalence (Equiv)
    Exportation (Exp)
    Tautology (Taut)
    Check Your Understanding 8F
    G. Conditional Proof
    Check Your Understanding 8G
    H. Indirect Proof
    Check Your Understanding 8H
    LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Truth
    CHAPTER 9. PREDICATE LOGIC
    A. Translating Ordinary Language
    Singular Statements
    Universal Statements
    Particular Statements
    Paying Attention to Meaning
    Check Your Understanding 9A
    B. Four New Rules of Inference
    Universal Instantiation
    Universal Generalization
    Existential Generalization
    Existential Instantiation
    Summary of the Four Rules
    Tactics and Strategy
    Check Your Understanding 9B
    C. Change of Quantifier
    Check Your Understanding 9C
    D. Conditional and Indirect Proof
    Conditional Proof
    Indirect Proof
    Check Your Understanding 9D
    E. Demonstrating Invalidity
    Counterexample Method
    Finite Universe Method
    Indirect Truth Tables
    Check Your Understanding 9E
    F. Relational Predicates
    Translations
    Check Your Understanding 9F.1
    Proofs
    A New Restriction
    Change of Quantifier
    Conditional Proof and Indirect Proof
    Check Your Understanding 9F.2
    G. Identity
    Simple Identity Statements
    "Only"
    "The Only"
    "No . . . Except"
    "All Except"
    Superlatives
    "At Most"
    "At Least"
    "Exactly"
    Definite Descriptions
    Summary of Identity Translations
    Check Your Understanding 9G.1
    Proofs
    Check Your Understanding 9G.2
    LOGIC CHALLENGE: Your Name and Age, Please
    PART IV. INDUCTIVE LOGIC
    CHAPTER 10. ANALOGICAL ARGUMENTS
    A. The Framework of Analogical Arguments
    Check Your Understanding 10A
    B. Analyzing Analogical Arguments
    Criteria for Analyzing Analogical Arguments
    Check Your Understanding 10B
    C. Strategies of Evaluation
    Disanalogies
    Counteranalogy
    Unintended Consequences
    Combining Strategies
    Check Your Understanding 10C
    LOGIC CHALLENGE: Beat the Cheat
    CHAPTER 11. LEGAL ARGUMENTS
    A. Deductive and Inductive Reasoning
    B. Conditional Statements
    C. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
    D. Disjunction and Conjunction
    E. Analyzing a Complex Rule
    Check Your Understanding 11E
    F. Analogies
    G. The Role of Precedent
    Check Your Understanding 11G
    LOGIC CHALLENGE: A Guilty Problem
    CHAPTER 12. MORAL ARGUMENTS
    A. Value Judgments
    Justifying "Should"
    Types of Value Judgments
    Taste and Value
    Check Your Understanding 12A
    B. Moral Theories
    Emotivism
    Consequentialism
    Egoism
    Utilitarianism
    Deontology
    Situation Ethics
    Relativism
    Contrasting Moral Theories
    Check Your Understanding 12B
    C. The Naturalistic Fallacy
    D. The Structure of Moral Arguments
    E. Analogies and Moral Arguments
    Check Your Understanding 12E
    F. Justifying Moral Premises
    Check Your Understanding 12F
    LOGIC CHALLENGE: Dangerous Cargo
    CHAPTER 13. STATISTICAL ARGUMENTS AND PROBABILITY
    A. Samples and Populations
    Check Your Understanding 13A
    B. Statistical Averages
    Check Your Understanding 13B
    C. Standard Deviation
    Dividing the Curve
    The Size of the Standard Deviation
    How to Calculate Standard Deviation
    Check Your Understanding 13C
    D. What If the Results Are Skewed?
    E. The Misuse of Statistics
    Check Your Understanding 13E
    F. Probability Theories
    A Priori Theory
    Relative Frequency Theory
    Subjectivist Theory
    G. Probability Calculus
    Conjunction Methods
    Disjunction Methods
    Negation Method
    Check Your Understanding 13G
    H. True Odds in Games of Chance
    I. Bayesian Theory
    Check Your Understanding 13I
    LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Second Child
    CHAPTER 14. CAUSALITY AND SCIENTIFIC ARGUMENTS
    A. Causality
    B. Mill's Methods
    Method of Agreement
    Method of Difference
    Joint Method of Agreement and Difference
    Method of Residues
    Method of Concomitant Variations
    Check Your Understanding 14B
    C. Limitations of Mill's Methods
    D. Theoretical and Experimental Science
    E. Inference to the Best Explanation
    F. Hypothesis Testing, Experiments, and Predictions
    Controlled Experiments
    Determining Causality
    G. Science and Superstition
    The Need for a Fair Test
    Verifiable Predictions
    Nontrivial Predictions
    Connecting the Hypothesis and Prediction
    Science and Superstition
    The Allure of Superstition
    Check Your Understanding 14G
    LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Scale and the Coins
    CHAPTER 15. ANALYZING A LONG ESSAY
    A. Childbed Fever
    B. Vienna
    Check Your Understanding 15B
    C. Miasm and Contagion
    Check Your Understanding 15C
    D. Semmelweis's Account of the Discovery
    Check Your Understanding 15D
    Summary of Semmelweis's Account
    E. Initial Questions
    Check Your Understanding 15E
    F. A New Interpretation
    Check Your Understanding 15F
    LOGIC CHALLENGE: A Relative Problem
    Bibliography
    Glossary
    Answers to Selected Exercises
    Index

Teaching Resources

  • An Instructor's Manual with Computerized Test Bank on CD includes: Solutions to all exercises in the book, enhanced by explanations and answers that elucidate the details of the correct answers
  • Key Terms and a summary for each chapter
  • A customizable Computerized Test Bank--with multiple-choice, true/false, and fill-in-the-blank questions--that allows instructors to give exams or homework problems that can be auto-graded 
  • A traditional "pencil-and-paper" Test Bank and answer key containing the same questions as the Computerized Test Bank
  • PowerPoint-based lecture outlines
  • The Instructor's Manual with Computerized Test Bank and the traditional Test Bank are also available in printed format.

A Companion Website offers: 
  • Instructor Resources (password-protected): A downloadable version of the Instructor's Manual (except for the Test Bank and the exercise solutions) PowerPoint-based lecture outlines

  • Student Resources: Brief chapter summaries, Interactive Flash Cards with key terms and definitions, Web links and other media resources, Practice quizzes with answers and explanations (includes questions answered in the book and new, original questions)

The Learning Management System Cartridges include, in a fully downloadable format:
  • Instructor's Manual and Computerized Test Bank (exams and homework problems can be auto-graded)
  • Student material from the companion website

The Perfect Text for Your Course . . . No Matter How You Teach It. Your course is unique; you have your own teaching philosophy and style. Whether you teach traditional Introduction to Logic, Critical Thinking/Informal Logic, or Formal Logic, Baronett: Logic, Second Edition, can be tailored to fulfill your course needs. We'll make it easy for you; choose one of our Alternate Editions or build the book you want, chapter by chapter. Option 1. Author Stan Baronett has suggested four Alternate Editions that may work for you. Each Alternate Edition comes in full color, with answers to problems, a full glossary, and an index. The books are in stock and available for ordering. Please see the ISBN information below. Logic: Concise Edition Chapters 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 Order using ISBN: 978-0-19-994129-2Logic: An Emphasis on Critical Thinking and Informal Logic Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 10, 11, 12, 13 A-E, 14, 15 Order using ISBN: 978-0-19-994128-5Logic: An Emphasis on Formal Logic Chapters 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Order using ISBN: 978-0-19-994126-1Logic: With Diagramming used in Chapter 4. Informal Fallacies Full text Order using ISBN: 978-0-19-997081-0Option 2. Create your own customized textbook by choosing the specific chapters that you need for your course. Please contact your Oxford University Press Sales Representative or call 800.280.0280 for details.