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Cover

Introduction to Mineralogy

Second Edition

William Nesse

Publication Date - August 2011

ISBN: 9780199827381

496 pages
Hardcover
8-1/2 x 11 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $152.95

Description

The second edition of Introduction to Mineralogy follows the highly successful first edition, which become an overnight market leader. Introduction to Mineralogy consolidates much of the material now covered in traditional mineralogy and optical mineralogy courses and focuses on describing minerals within their geologic context. It presents the important traditional content of mineralogy including crystallography, chemical bonding, controls on mineral structure, mineral stability, and crystal growth to provide a foundation that enables students to understand the nature and occurrence of minerals. Physical, optical, and X-ray powder diffraction techniques of mineral study are described in detail, and common chemical analytical methods are outlined as well. Detailed descriptions of over 100 common minerals are provided, and the geologic context within which these minerals occur is emphasized. Appendices provide tables and diagrams to help students with mineral identification, using both physical and optical properties. Numerous line drawings, photographs, and photomicrographs help make complex concepts understandable. Introduction to Mineralogy is available with Daniel Schulze's An Atlas of Minerals in Thin Section for a nominal additional fee.

New to this Edition

  • New 2-color design to clarify information hierarchy and presentation
  • Expanded selection of mineral photos
  • Improved presentation of physical properties of minerals in chapter 1
  • Updated mineral descriptions
  • New coverage of minerals and health

Features

  • Detailed descriptions of over 100 common minerals
  • Appendices provide tables and diagrams to help students with mineral identification

About the Author(s)

William D. Nesse is the Chair and Professor of Geology at the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Northern Colorado.

Previous Publication Date(s)

October 1999

Table of Contents

    Chapter 1. Introduction
    Minerals
    Mineraloids
    Mineralogy
    Mineral Nomenclature
    General References on Mineralogy
    References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

    Chapter 2. Crystallography
    Introduction
    Translational Symmetry
    Plane Lattices
    --Translational Symmetry: 3-D
    --Space Lattices and Unit Cell
    --Bravais Lattices & Crystal Systems
    Point Symmetry
    --Reflection
    --Rotation
    --Inversion
    --Compound Symmetry Operations
    --Symmetry Notation
    32 Point Groups
    --Steno's Law
    --Measurement of Crystal Angles
    --Determining Crystal System and Crystal Class
    Space Groups
    Crystal Faces
    --Laws of Haüy and Bravais
    --Miller Indices
    --Indices and Crystal Axes in the Hexagonal Crystal System
    --Determining Miller Index
    --Assigning Miller Indexes by Inspection
    Crystallographic Directions
    Zones
    Crystal Forms
    --Isometric Forms
    --Non-isometric Forms
    --Combining Crystal Forms
    --Enantiomorphous Forms and Crystals
    --Positive and Negative Forms
    Forms in the Six Crystal Systems
    --Triclinic Crystal System
    --Monoclinic Crystal System
    --Orthorhombic Crystal System
    --Tetragonal Crystal System
    --Hexagonal Crystal System
    --Isometric Crystal System
    Crystal Habit
    References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

    Chapter 3 Crystal Chemistry
    Introduction
    The Nature of Chemical Elements
    --Nucleus
    --Electrons
    --Formation of Ions
    Abundance of the Elements
    Chemical Bonding
    --Valence-related bonding
    --Relation among the Valence-dependent Bonds
    --Bonds Not Involving Valence Electrons
    Size of Atoms and Ions
    --Oxidation State
    --Coordination
    References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

    Chapter 4: Crystal Structure
    Introduction
    Controls of Crystal Structure
    --Structure Controls with Metallic Bonding
    --Structure Controls with Covalent Bonding
    --Structural Controls with Molecular Crystals
    --Structure Controls with Ionic Bonding
    --Application of Pauling's Rules
    Illustrating Mineral Structures
    Isostructural Minerals
    Polymorphism
    --Reconstructive Polymorphism
    --Displacive Polymorphism
    --Order-Disorder Polymorphism
    --Polytypism
    Mineral Classification
    Compositional Variation in Minerals
    --Substitutional Solid Solution
    Mineral Formulas
    Graphical Representation
    --Binary diagrams
    --Ternary diagrams
    References Cited & Suggestions for Additional Reading

    Chapter 5: Mineral Growth
    Introduction
    --Mineral Stability
    --Stability
    --Gibbs Free Energy
    --Mineral reactions
    Mineral Nucleation
    --Homogeneous Nucleation
    --Heterogeneous nucleation
    Crystal Growth.
    --Rate of growth
    --Zoned Crystals
    Structural Defects
    --Point Defects
    --Line Defects
    --Planar Defects
    --Twinning
    Post-crystallization Processes
    --Ordering
    --Twinning
    --Recrystallization
    --Exsolution
    --Radioactivity and Minerals
    References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading


    Section II: Mineral Properties, Study, and Identification

    Chapter 6: Physical Properties of Minerals

    Introduction
    Mass Dependent Properties
    --Density
    --Specific Gravity
    Properties Related to Mechanical Cohesion
    --Hardness
    --Tenacity
    --Cleavage
    --Fracture
    --Parting
    Color and Luster
    --Light
    --Perception of Color
    --Mineral Luster
    --Mineral Color
    --Color From Mechanical Causes
    --Consistency of Mineral Color
    --Streak
    --Luminescence
    Magnetism
    --Diamagnetism
    --Paramagnetism
    --Ferromagnetism
    --Ferrimagnetism
    Electrical Properties
    --Electrical Conductivity
    --Piezoelectricity
    --Pyroelectricity
    Miscellaneous Properties
    References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

    Chapter 7: Optical Mineralogy
    Introduction
    Light
    --Light Waves
    --Polarized Light
    Interaction of Light and Matter
    --Optically Isotropic vs. Anisotropic Materials
    --Reflection and Refraction
    --Dispersion
    Petrographic Microscope
    --Illuminator
    --Substage Assembly
    --Microscope Stage
    --Objective Lenses
    --Upper Polarizer
    --Bertrand Lens
    --Oculars
    --Focusing Mechanism
    --Accessories
    --Direction Conventions
    Isotropic Materials
    Anisotropic Minerals
    --Interference Phenomena
    --Use of the Interference Color Chart
    --Extinction
    --Function of Accessory Plates
    Optical Indicatrix
    --Isotropic Indicatrix
    --Uniaxial Indicatrix
    --Biaxial Indicatrix
    Mineral Color & Pleochroism
    --Isotropic Minerals
    --Uniaxial Minerals
    --Biaxial
    Extinction Angle and Sign of Elongation
    --Extinction Angle
    --Sign of Elongation
    --Categories of Extinction
    --Extinction in Uniaxial Minerals
    --Extinction in Biaxial Minerals
    Interference Figures
    --Uniaxial Interference Figures
    --Biaxial Interference Figure
    Refractometry: Measurement of Index of Refraction
    --Immersion Method
    --Refractometry in Thin Section
    --Isotropic Minerals
    --Uniaxial Minerals
    --Biaxial Minerals
    Reflected-Light Optics
    --Observation in Plane Polarized Light
    --Observations with Crossed Polarizers
    Tactics for Mineral Identification
    --Thin section identification
    --Grain Mount Identification
    --Polished section identification
    References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

    Chapter 8. Introduction to X-ray Crystallography
    Introduction
    X-rays
    --X-ray Generation
    --X-ray Detection
    X-ray Diffraction
    Powder Method
    --Sample Preparation
    --Instrumental Output
    --Data Reduction
    --Powder Diffraction File
    --Bragg Reflection Indices
    --Mineral Identification
    --Mixed Samples
    --Estimation of Relative Mineral Abundance
    --Estimation of Composition
    Determining Unit Cell Parameters
    References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

    Chapter 9. Chemical Analysis of Minerals
    Introduction
    Analytical Methods
    --Wet Chemical
    --Electron Probe Microanalysis
    --X-ray Fluorescence
    --Mass Spectrometry
    --Conventions in Reporting Chemical Analyses
    Conversion of Chemical Analyses to Structural Formulas
    References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

    Chapter 10. Strategies for Study
    Introduction
    Mineral Identification Tactics
    --Mineral Separation
    --Hand Sample Identification
    --Thin Section Identification
    --Grain Mount Identification
    --Polished Section Identification
    --X-ray Diffraction
    Mineral Association
    Problems in Paradise
    References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
    Index


    Section III: Mineral Descriptions

    Chapter 11. Silicates
    Introduction
    Silicate Structure and Classification
    Mafic vs. Felsic
    Igneous Rocks
    --Magmatic Processes
    --Igneous Environments
    Terrigenous Sedimentary Rocks
    --Sedimentary Processes
    --Sedimentary Environments
    Metamorphic Rocks
    --Metamorphic Variables
    --Metamorphic Processes
    --Metamorphic Grade, Facies, Mineral Zone Boundaries and Isograds
    --Major Compositional Groups of Metamorphic Rocks
    --Metamorphic Environments
    References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

    Chapter 12: Framework Silicates
    Introduction
    Silica Group
    --Quartz
    --Tridymite
    --Cristobalite
    Feldspar Group
    --Composition
    --Structure
    --Al/Si Order/Disorder
    --Exsolution in the Feldspars
    --Other Feldspar Intergrowths
    --Twinning
    --Plagioclase
    --K-Feldspar
    Feldspathoids
    --Nepheline
    --Leucite
    --Sodalite
    Zeolite Group
    Scapolite
    References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

    Chapter 13 Sheet Silicates
    Introduction
    Structure and Classification
    --1:1 Layer Silicates
    --2:1 Layer Silicates
    --Polytypism
    TO Structures (1:1)
    --Serpentine (Antigorite, Chrysotile, Lizardite)
    --Kaolinite
    TOT Structures (2:1)
    --Talc
    --Pyrophyllite
    TOT + c Structures: Mica Minerals (2:1)
    --Muscovite
    --Biotite
    --Glauconite
    TOT + c Structures: Brittle Micas (2:1)
    --Margarite
    --Clintonite
    TOT + O Structure
    --Chlorite
    Clay Minerals
    --Structure and Classification
    --Geology of Clay
    --Identification
    --Uses
    --Clay in the Environment
    Other Sheet Silicates
    --Stilpnomelane
    --Prehnite

    Chapter 14. Chain Silicates
    Introduction
    Pyroxene group
    --Structure and Classification
    --Geology of Pyroxenes
    --Orthopyroxene
    --Lo-Ca Clinopyroxene
    --Calcic Clinopyroxene
    --Aegirine (Acmite), Aegirine-augite
    --Jadeite
    --Omphacite
    --Spodumene
    Pyroxenoid Group
    --Introduction
    --Wollastonite
    --Rhodonite
    --Pectolite
    Amphibole Group
    --Structure and Classification
    --Geology of Amphiboles
    --Orthoamphibole
    --Cummingtonite-Grunerite
    --Tremolite - Ferro-actinolite
    --Hornblende
    --Glaucophane - Riebeckite
    --Other amphiboles
    References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

    Chapter 15. Disilicates and Ring Silicates
    Disilicates
    --Structure & Classification
    --Zoisite
    --Clinozoisite-Epidote
    --Allanite
    --Lawsonite
    --Pumpellyite
    Ring Silicates
    --Structure & Classification
    --Beryl
    --Cordierite
    --Tourmaline
    References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

    Chapter 16. Orthosilicates
    Introduction
    Olivine Group
    Garnet Group
    Zircon
    Aluminum Silicates
    --Andalusite
    --Sillimanite
    --Kyanite
    Staurolite
    Chloritoid
    Titanite
    Topaz
    References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

    Chapter 17. Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Borates, Tungstates, and Molybdates
    Structure and Classification
    Carbonates
    Rhombohedral Carbonates (Calcite and Dolomite Groups)
    --Calcite
    --Magnesite
    --Siderite
    --Rhodochrosite
    --Dolomite-Ankerite
    Aragonite Group
    --Aragonite
    --Witherite
    --Strontianite
    OH-Bearing Carbonates
    --Malachite
    --Azurite
    Sulfates
    --Gypsum
    --Anhydrite
    --Barite
    Phosphates
    --Apatite
    --Monazite
    --Xenotime
    --Tourquoise
    Tungstates and Molybdates
    Borates
    References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

    Chapter 18. Oxides, Hydroxides, and Halides
    Introduction
    Oxides
    X2O Group
    --Cuprite
    --Ice
    XO Group
    XY2O4 Minerals
    --Spinel Group
    --Magnetite
    --Chromite
    --Spinel Series
    --Chrysoberyl
    X2O3 Group
    --Hematite
    --Corundum
    --Ilmenite
    XO2 Group
    --Rutile
    --Cassiterite
    --Uraninite
    Hydroxides
    --Brucite
    --Iron Hydroxide Minerals
    --Aluminum Hydroxide Minerals
    --Manganese Oxide and Hydroxide Minerals
    Halides
    --Halite
    --Sylvite
    --Fluorite
    References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

    Chapter 19. Sulfides and Related Minerals
    Introduction
    --Crystal Chemistry & Classification
    Sulfide Paragenesis
    --Hydrothermal Deposits
    --Supergene Processes
    Sulfide Minerals
    --Sphalerite
    --Galena
    --Pyrrhotite
    --Chalcopyrite
    --Cinnabar
    --Pyrite
    --Marcasite
    --Molybdenite
    --Bornite
    --Chalcocite
    --Covellite
    Sulfarsenides
    --Arsenopyrite
    Arsenides
    Tellurides
    References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

    Chapter 20. Native Elements
    Introduction
    Metals
    --Gold
    --Silver
    --Copper
    Semimetals
    Nonmetals
    --Sulfur
    --Graphite
    --Diamond
    References Cited and Suggestions for Reading

    APPENDICES

    Appendix A. Effective Ionic Radii of the Elements
    Appendix B. Determinative Tables

    --Table B.1. Non-metallic minerals with white, gray, or other pale colored streak.
    --Table B.2. Non-metallic minerals with distinctly colored streak.
    --Table B.3. Minerals with metallic and submetallic luster.
    --Table B.4. Specific gravity.
    --Table B.5. Minerals that may fluoresce.
    --Table B.6. Color of minerals in thin section and grain mount.
    --Table B.7. Indices of refraction of isotropic minerals
    --Table B.8. Indices of refraction of uniaxial minerals.
    --Table B9. Indices of refraction of biaxial negative minerals arranged in order of increasing n?.
    --Table B.10. Indices of refraction of biaxial positive minerals arranged in order of increasing n?.
    --Table B.11. Minerals that produce pleochroic halos in surrounding minerals.
    --Table B.12. Colors exhibited by opaque minerals in polished section viewed in air.
    --Table B.13. Opaque or nearly opaque minerals that display internal reflections with reflected light.
    Appendix C. Mineral Associations
    --Table C1. Mineralogy of Common Igneous Rocks
    --Table C2. Mineralogy of Sedimentary Rocks
    --Table C3. Mineralogy of Common Metamorphic Rocks
    --Table C4. Mineralogy of Hydrothermal Sulfide Deposits