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Introduction to Fluid Mechanics

Edward J. Shaughnessy, Jr., Ira M. Katz, and James P. Schaffer

Publication Date - December 2004

ISBN: 9780195154511

1056 pages
7-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $173.95

A uniquely visual approach to this important and exciting field.


Introduction to Fluid Mechanics provides a balanced and uniquely visual treatment of the tools used in solving modern fluid mechanics problems. Presenting an image-intensive approach to fluid dynamics through classic kinematic concepts, the book demonstrates the importance of flow visualization in a framework of modern experimental techniques and flow simulation.

Detailed photographs and diagrams of fluid motions and phenomena throughout the text help students to see and understand why equations change drastically for different types of flows. Output illustrations from CFD (computational fluid dynamics) programs illustrate the possibilities of flow behavior, enabling students to concentrate on ideas instead of mathematics. The book also provides the means to solve interesting problems early in the course by presenting case studies at the beginning of the text. These cases are revisited later to reinforce empirical rules and help explain advanced methods of analyzing a flow.

Creating a foundation for further study in this important and exciting field, Introduction to Fluid Mechanics is ideal for a first course in fluid mechanics. The book is designed to accommodate students concentrating in mechanical engineering as well as those in the civil, aerospace, and chemical engineering fields.


BLA highly organized 2-color interior and icons throughout the text aid in navigation and review.
BLCFD icons indicate subject matter that directly or indirectly relates to computational methods to familiarize students with this powerful tool.
BLFE icons note material that is covered in the Fundamentals of Engineering exam to help students prepare.
BLChapters on differential analysis of flow and on applications of fluid mechanics are self-contained so that instructors can pick and choose which topics to cover.

An Instructor's Manual and CD are available to adopters.

About the Author(s)

Edward J. Shaughnessy is Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science at Duke University. His research interests include analytical, experimental, and computational studies of flow problems arising in biology, medicine, and biotechnology as well as in more traditional mechanical engineering applications.

Ira M. Katz is Director of Mechanical Engineering Laboratories and Chemical Hygiene Coordinator at Lafayette College. His primary research interest has been the modeling of particle deposition in the lung. He is the author of many technical papers involving experimental and computational fluid mechanics.

James P. Schaffer is Director of Engineering at Lafayette College. His research focuses on the characterization of atomic scale defects in solids. He has published more than forty papers and has received numerous teaching awards.

Table of Contents

    Each chapter ends with a summary and problems.
    1. Fundamental Concepts
    1.1. Introduction
    1.2. Gases, Liquids, and Solids
    1.3. Methods of Description
    1.3.1. Continuum Hypothesis
    1.3.2. Continuum and Noncontinuum Descriptions
    1.3.3. Molecular Description
    1.3.4. Lagrangian Description
    1.3.5. Eulerian Description
    1.3.6. Choice of Description
    1.4. Dimensions and Unit Systems
    1.4.1. {MLtT} Systems
    1.4.2. {FLtT} Systems
    1.4.3. {FMLtT} Systems
    1.4.4. Preferred Unit Systems
    1.4.5. Unit Conversions
    1.5. Problem Solving
    2. Fluid Properties
    2.1. Introduction
    2.2. Mass, Weight, and Density
    2.2.1. Specific Weight
    2.2.2. Specific Gravity
    2.3. Pressure
    2.3.1. Pressure Variation in a Stationary Fluid
    2.3.2. Manometer Readings
    2.3.3. Buoyancy and Archimedes' Principle
    2.3.4. Pressure Variation in a Moving Fluid
    2.4. Temperature and Other Thermal Properties
    2.4.1. Specific Heat
    2.4.2. Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
    2.5. The Perfect Gas Law
    2.5.1. Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats of a Perfect Gas
    2.5.2. Limits of Applicability
    2.6. Bulk Compressibility Modulus
    2.6.1. Speed of Sound
    2.7. Viscosity
    2.7.1. Viscous Dissipation
    2.7.2. Bulk Viscosity
    2.8. Surface Tension
    2.8.1. Pressure Jump Across a Curved Interface
    2.8.2. Contact Angle and Wetting
    2.8.3. Capillary Action
    2.9. Fluid Energy
    2.9.1. Internal Energy
    2.9.2. Kinetic Energy
    2.9.3. Potential Energy
    2.9.4. Total Energy
    3. Case Studies in Fluid Mechanics
    3.1. Introduction
    3.2. Common Dimensionless Groups in Fluid Mechanics
    3.3. Case Studies
    3.3.1. Flow in a Round Pipe
    3.3.2. Flow Through Area Change
    3.3.3. Pump and Fan Laws
    3.3.4. Flat Plate Boundary Layer
    3.3.5. Drag on Cylinders and Spheres
    3.3.6. Lift and Drag on Airfoils
    4. Fluid Forces
    4.1. Introduction
    4.2. Classification of Fluid Forces
    4.3. The Origins of Body and Surface Forces
    4.4. Body Forces
    4.5. Surface Forces
    4.5.1. Flow Over a Flat Rate
    4.5.2. Flow Through a Round Pipe
    4.5.3. Lift and Drag
    4.6. Stress in a Fluid
    4.7. Force Balance in a Fluid
    5. Fluid Statistics
    5.1. Introduction
    5.2. Hydrostatic Stress
    5.3. Hydrostatic Equation
    5.3.1. Integral Hydrostatic Equation
    5.3.2. Differential Hydrostatic Equation
    5.4. Hydrostatic Pressure Distribution
    5.4.1. Constant Density Fluid in a Gravity Field
    5.4.2. Variable Density Fluid in a Gravity Field
    5.4.3. Constant Density Fluid in Rigid Rotation
    5.4.4. Constant Density Fluid in Rectilinear Acceleration
    5.5. Hydrostatic Force
    5.5.1. Planar Aligned Surface
    5.5.2. Planar Nonaligned Surface
    5.5.3. Curved Surface
    5.6. Hydrostatic Moment
    5.6.1. Planar Aligned Surface
    5.6.2. Planar Nonaligned Surface
    5.7. Resultant Force and Point of Application
    5.8. Buoyancy and Archimedes' Principle
    5.9. Equilibrium and Stability of Immersed Bodies
    6. The Velocity Field and Fluid Transport
    6.1. Introduction
    6.2. The Fluid Velocity Field
    6.3. Fluid Acceleration
    6.4. The Substantial Derivative
    6.5. Classification of Flows
    6.5.1. One-, Two-, and Three Dimensional Flow
    6.5.2. Uniform, Axisymmetric, and Spatially Periodic Flow
    6.5.3. Fully Developed Flow
    6.5.4. Steady Flow, Steady Process, and Temporally Periodic Flow
    6.6. No-Slip, No- Penetration boundary Conditions
    6.7. Fluid Transport
    6.7.1. Convective Transport
    6.7.2. Diffusive Transport
    6.7.3. Total Transport
    6.8. Average Velocity and Flowrate
    8. Flow of an Inviscid Fluid: the Bernoulli Equation
    8.1. Introduction
    8.2. Frictionless Flow Along a Streamline
    8.3. Bernoulli Equation
    8.3.1. Bernoulli Equation for an Incompressible Fluid
    8.3.2. Cavitation
    8.3.3. Bernoulli Equation for a Compressible Solid
    8.4. Static, Dynamic, Stagnation, and Total Pressure
    8.5. Applications of the Bernoulli Equation
    8.5.1. Pitot Tube
    8.5.2. Siphon
    8.5.3. Sluice Gate
    8.5.4. Flow Through Area Change
    8.5.5. Draining of a Tank
    8.6. Relationship to the Energy Equation
    9. Dimensional Analysis and Similitude
    9.1. Introduction
    9.2. Buckingham Pi Theorem
    9.3. Repeating Variable Method
    9.4. Similitude and Model Development
    9.5. Correlation of Experimental Data
    9.6. Application to Case Studies
    9.6.1. DA of Flow in a Round Pipe
    9.6.2. DA of Flow Through Area Change
    9.6.3. DA of Pump and Fan Laws
    9.6.4. DA of Flat Plate Boundary Layer
    9.6.5. DA of Drag on Cylinders and Spheres
    9.6.6. DA of Lift and Drag on Airfoils
    10. Elements of Flow Visualization and Flow Structure
    10.1. Introduction
    10.2. Lagrangian Kinematics
    10.2.1. Particle Path, Velocity, and Acceleration
    10.2.2. Lagrangian Fluid Properties
    10.3. The Eulerian-Lagrangian Connection
    10.4. Material Lines, Surfaces, and Volumes
    10.5. Pathlines and Streaklines
    10.6. Streamlines and Streamtubes
    10.7. Motion and Deformation
    10.8. Velocity Gradient
    10.9. Rate of Rotation
    10.9.1. Vorticity
    10.9.2. Circulation
    10.9.3. Irrotational Flow and Velocity Potential
    10.10. Rate of Expansion
    10.10.1. Dilation
    10.10.2. Incompressible Fluid and Incompressible Flow
    10.10.3. Streamfunction
    10.11. Rate of Shear Deformation
    11. Governing Equations of Fluid Dynamics
    11.1. Introduction
    11.2. Continuity Equation
    11.3. Momentum Equation
    11.4. Constitutive Model for a Newtonian Fluid
    11.5. Navier-Stokes Equation
    11.6. Euler Equations
    11.6.1. Streamline Coordinates
    11.6.2. Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation
    11.7. The Energy Equation
    11.8. Discussion
    11.8.1. Initial and Boundary Conditions
    11.8.2. Nondimensionalization
    11.8.3. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
    12. Analysis of Incompressible Flow
    12.1. Introduction
    12.2. Steady Viscous Flow
    12.2.1. Plane Couette Flow
    12.2.2. Circular Couette Flow
    12.2.3. Poiseuille Flow Between Parallel Plates
    12.2.4. Poiseuille Flow in a Pipe
    12.2.5. Flow Over a Cylinder (CFD)
    12.3. Unsteady Viscous Flow
    12.3.1. Startup of Plane Couette Flow
    12.3.2. Unsteady Flow Over a Cylinder (CFD)
    12.4. Turbulent Flow
    12.4.1. Reynolds Equations
    12.4.2. Steady Turbulent Flow Between Parallel Plates (CFD)
    12.5. Inviscid Irrotational Flow
    12.5.1. Plane Potential Flow
    12.5.2. Elementary Plane Potential Flows
    12.5.3. Superposition of Elementary Plane Potential Flows
    12.5.4. Flow Over a Cylinder with Circulation
    13. Flow in Pipes and Ducts
    13.1. Introduction
    13.2. Steady, Fully Developed Flow in a Pipe or Duct
    13.2.1. Major Head Loss
    13.2.2. Friction Factor
    13.2.3. Friction Factors in Laminar Flow
    13.2.4. Friction Factors in Turbulent Flow
    13.3. Analysis of Flow in Single Path Pipe and Duct Systems
    13.3.1. Minor Head Loss
    13.3.2. Pump and Turbine Head
    13.3.3. Examples
    13.4. Analysis of Flow in Multiple Path Pipe and Duct Systems
    13.5. Elements of Pipe and Duct System Design
    13.5.1. Pump and Fan Selection
    14. External Flow
    14.1. Introduction
    14.2. Boundary Layers: Basic Concepts
    14.2.1. Laminar Boundary Layer on a Flat Plate
    14.2.2. Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Flat Plate
    14.2.3. Boundary Layer on an Airfoil or Other Body
    14.3. Drag: Basic Concepts
    14.4. Drag Coefficients
    14.4.1. Low Reynolds Number Flow
    14.4.2. Cylinders
    14.4.3. Spheres
    14.4.4. Bluff Bodies
    14.5. Lift and Drag of Airfoils
    15. Open Channel Flow
    15.1. Introduction
    15.2. Basic Concepts in Open Channel Flow
    15.3. The Importance of the Froude Number
    15.3.1. Flow over a Bump or Depression
    15.3.2. Flow in a Horizontal Channel of Varying Width
    15.3.3. Propagation of Surface Waves
    15.3.4. Hydraulic Jump
    15.4. Energy Conservation in Open Channel Flow
    15.4.1. Specific Energy
    15.4.2. Specific Energy Diagrams
    15.5. Flow in a Channel of Uniform Depth
    15.5.1. Uniform Flow Examples
    15.5.2. Optimum Channel Cross Section
    15.6. Flow in a Channel with Gradually Varying Depth
    15.7. Flow Under a Sluice Gate
    15.8. Flow Over a Weir
    A. Fluid Property Data for Various Fluids
    B. Properties of the U.S. Standard Atmosphere
    C. Unit Conversion Factors

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