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Introducing Philosophy

A Text with Integrated Readings

Tenth Edition

Robert C. Solomon, Kathleen M. Higgins, and Clancy Martin

Publication Date - September 2011

ISBN: 9780199764860

672 pages
8 x 10 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $89.95

This truly hybrid introduction combines exceptionally clear explanations with excerpts of works from both traditional Western philosophy and alternative--continental, feminist, and non-Western--perspectives


Introducing Philosophy: A Text with Integrated Readings, Tenth Edition, is an exciting, accessible, and thorough introduction to the core problems of philosophy and the many ways in which they are, and have been, answered. The authors combine substantial selections from significant works in the history of philosophy with excerpts from current philosophy, clarifying the readings and providing context with their own detailed commentary and explanation. Spanning 2,500 years, the selections range from the oldest known fragments to cutting-edge contemporary essays. Organized topically, the chapters present alternative perspectives--including analytic, continental, feminist, and non-Western viewpoints--alongside the historical works of major Western philosophers.


* Discussion questions, a summary, and a bibliography with suggestions for further reading at the end of each chapter
* Questions at the end of each subsection
* Marginal quotations from the featured readings
* Key philosophical terms, boldfaced in the text and collected at the end of each chapter
* A glossary at the end of the book

New to this Edition

  • A second color and more than 230 images illustrating key concepts and depicting famous philosophical figures
  • New selections by William Paley, John Locke, Bertrand Russell, W. V. O. Quine, St. Thomas Aquinas, John Dewey, and Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • Careful revisions to the readings and the author commentary that make the material even more accessible
  • More than 100 brief profiles of philosophers interspersed throughout
  • A revised Instructor's Manual provides chapter summaries and goals; section summaries; a Test Bank with multiple-choice, essay, true/false, and fill-in-the-blank questions; lecture outlines; and downloadable PowerPoint-based slides
  • An updated Companion Website at www.oup.com/us/solomon includes all the material from the Instructor's Manual along with resources for students: chapter overviews; chapter goals; interactive flash cards with key terms and definitions; discussion and essay questions; web links and activities; self-quizzes; and suggestions for further reading

About the Author(s)

The late Robert C. Solomon was Quincy Lee Centennial Professor of Business and Philosophy and Distinguished Teaching Professor at the University of Texas at Austin.

Kathleen Higgins is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Texas at Austin.

Clancy Martin is Professor of Philosophy and Chair of the Department at the University of Missouri-Kansas City.

Previous Publication Date(s)

December 2007
July 2004
January 2001


"This is undoubtedly one of the best philosophy textbooks available. Among its strengths are its breadth of coverage, the seamless integration of the material along historical and topical lines, the introductions and explanations that accompany the extracts from each author, and the contrastive approach."--Christian Coseru, College of Charleston

"Robert Solomon had one of the greatest philosophical styles in contemporary philosophy, and the joy of Introducing Philosophy is largely to be found in his lucid, fun, and gently provocative prose."--Jonathan Scott Lee, Colorado College

Table of Contents

    Philosopher Biographies
    History of Philosophy
    A. Socrates
    Aristophanes, from The Clouds
    Plato, from The Apology; from The Crito; from The Phaedo; from The Republic
    B. What Is Philosophy?
    Plato, from The Apology
    Karl Jaspers, from "The 'Axial Period'"
    Laozi, from Dao De Jing
    C. A Modern Approach to Philosophy
    René Descartes, from Discourse on Method
    D. A Brief Introduction to Logic
    1. Deductive Arguments
    2. Inductive Arguments
    3. Argument by Analogy
    4. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions, "Logical Possibility," and Arguments by Counterexample
    5. Reductio ad Absurdum
    6. The Most Insidious Kinds of Fallacies
    Key Terms
    Bibliography and Further Reading
    A. What Is Religion?
    John Wisdom, from "Gods"
    Albert Einstein, On the Design of the Universe
    Keiji Nishitani, from "What Is Religion?"
    B. The Western Religions
    1. The Traditional Conception of God
    C. Proving God: The Ontological Argument
    St. Anselm, On the Ontological Argument
    René Descartes, On the Ontological Argument
    Immanuel Kant, Against the Ontological Argument
    D. God as Creator: Intelligence and Design
    St. Thomas Aquinas, On the Cosmological Argument
    * William Paley, "The Watch and the Watchmaker"
    St. Thomas Aquinas, On the "Fifth Way"
    David Hume, from Dialogues on Natural Religion
    E. Religion, Morality, and Evil
    1. Religion and "Practical Reason"
    Immanuel Kant, on God and Morality
    William James, from "The Will to Believe"
    2. The Problem of Evil
    St. Augustine, from Confessions
    3. Hinduism, Buddhism, Karma, and Compassion
    From The Bhagavadgita
    F. Beyond Reason: Faith and Irrationality
    1. God as Experience
    Mohammad al-Ghazali, from The Deliverance from Error
    2. The Leap of Faith
    Søren Kierkegaard, On Subjective Truth
    3. God as Ultimate Concern
    Paul Tillich, On the Ultimate Concern
    G. Doubts about Religion
    Fyodor Dostoyevsky, from The Brothers Karamazov
    Karl Marx, from Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right
    Friedrich Nietzsche, from Beyond Good and Evil; from The Antichrist; from The Gay Science
    Sigmund Freud, from The Future of an Illusion
    A. "The Way the World Really Is"
    Aristotle, from Metaphysics
    B. The First Greek Philosophers
    1. The Ionian Naturalists
    2. Monism, Materialism, and Immaterial "Stuff"
    3. Heraclitus
    4. Democritus, Atoms, and Pluralism
    5. Animism
    6. Pythagoras
    7. The Appearance/Reality Distinction
    8. Parmenides
    Parmenides, from Fragments
    9. The Sophists
    10. Metaphysics
    C. Ultimate Reality in the East: India, Persia, and China
    1. Reality as One: The Upanishads
    From Upanishads
    2. Reality, Good, and Evil: Zarathustra
    From Zend-Avesta
    3. Confucius
    Confucius, from The Confucian Analects
    4. Laozi, or the Poets of the Dao De Jing
    Laozi, from Dao De Jing
    5. Buddha
    Buddha, from "Fire-Sermon"
    D. Two Kinds of Metaphysics: Plato and Aristotle
    1. Plato
    Plato, from The Symposium; from The Republic; from The Meno
    2. Aristotle
    Aristotle, from Metaphysics; from Physics; from Metaphysics
    E. Modern Metaphysics
    1. René Descartes
    René Descartes, On Substance; from "Meditation VI"
    * John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
    2. Benedictus de Spinoza
    Benedictus de Spinoza, from Ethics
    3. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz
    Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, from Monadology
    Martin Heidegger, from "The Fundamental Question of Metaphysics"
    Bertrand Russell, from The Problems of Philosophy
    Plato, from Theatetus
    A. The Rationalist's Confidence: Descartes
    René Descartes, from "Meditation I"; from "Meditation II"; from "Meditation VI"
    B. Innate Ideas Concerning Human Understanding: John Locke
    John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
    Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, from New Essays on Human Understanding
    C. Two Empiricist Theories of Knowledge
    John Locke
    John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
    Bishop George Berkeley
    Bishop George Berkeley, from Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge
    D. The Congenial Skeptic: David Hume
    David Hume, from A Treatise of Human Nature; from An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
    E. Kant's Revolution
    Immanuel Kant, from The Critique of Pure Reason; from Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics
    F. The Battle in Europe After Kant: Relativism and Absolutism
    1. Hegel
    G. W. F. Hegel, from The Phenomenology of Spirit; from Reason in History
    2. Schopenahuer
    Arthur Schopenhauer, from The World as Will and Representation
    3. Nietzsche
    Friedrich Nietzsche, On Truth
    G. Phenomenology
    Edmund Husserl, from "Philosophy as Rigorous Science"; from The 1929 Paris Lectures
    H. Hermeneutics and Pragmatism: Relativism Reconsidered
    Richard Rorty, from "Solidarity or Objectivity?"
    Isamu Nagami, from "Cultural Gaps: Why Do We Misunderstand?"
    * I. The Analytic Turn
    * Bertrand Russell, from The Problems of Philosophy
    * W. V. O. Quine, from "Epistemology Naturalized"
    J. Feminist Epistemology
    Elizabeth Grosz, On Feminist Knowledge
    Uma Narayan, On Feminist Epistemology
    A. Consciousness and the Self: From Descartes to Kant
    Ren´Descartes, from "Meditation VI"
    John Locke, On Personal Identity
    David Hume, On "There Is No Self"
    Immanuel Kant, Against the Soul
    Meredith Michaels, On "Personal Identity"
    B. Existentialism: Self-Identity and the Responsibility of Choice
    Jean-Paul Sartre, On Existentialism; On Bad Faith; from No Exit
    C. The Individual and the Community
    Søren Kierkegaard, On "The Public"; On Self and Passion
    Martin Heidegger, On "Dasein" and the "They"
    David Reisman, On Individualism
    1. Voices of Protest
    Malcolm X, On Being "African"; from "At the Audubon"
    Sherry Ortner, from "Is Female to Male as Nature Is to Culture?"
    Ann Ferguson, On Androgyny
    D. One Self? Any Self? Questioning the Concept of Personal "Essence"
    Hermann Hesse, from Steppenwolf
    Luce Irigaray, from This Sex Which Is Not One
    Genevieve Lloyd, from "The Man of Reason"
    From The Dhammapada
    Laozi, from Dao De Jing
    A. What Is Consciousness?
    René Descartes, from "Meditation VI"; from "Meditation III"
    B. The Problem of Dualism
    René Descartes, from "The Passions of the Soul"
    C. The Rejection of Dualism
    1. Radical Behaviorism
    2. Logical Behaviorism
    Gilbert Ryle, from The Concept of Mind
    3. The Identity Theory
    J. J. C. Smart, from "Sensations and Brain Processes"
    Jerome Shaffer, Against the Identity Theory
    4. Eliminative Materialism
    Paul M. Churchland, On Eliminative Materialism
    5. Functionalism: The Mind and the Computer
    David Braddon-Mitchell and Frank Jackson, from Philosophy of Mind and Cognition
    John R. Searle, from "The Myth of the Computer"; from Minds, Brains, and Science
    6. Connectionism
    D. The Problem of Consciousness
    Sigmund Freud, On the "Unconscious"
    Thomas Nagel, from Mortal Questions
    Colin McGinn, On "The Mystery of Consciousness"
    1. Changing Our Minds: Holism and Consciousness
    Aristotle, from De Anima
    Galen Strawson, On "Cognitive Experience"
    William James, from "Does Consciousness Exist?"
    Friedrich Nietzsche, On the "Genius of the Species"
    A. Fatalism and Karma
    Sophocles, from Oedipus the King
    Keiji Nishitani, On Fate
    B. Predestination
    St. Augustine, from On Free Choice of the Will
    Mohammad Iqbal, from The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam
    Jacqueline Trimier, on the Yoruba Ori
    Jonathan Edwards, from "Freedom of the Will"
    C. Determinism
    1. Hard Determinism
    Baron Paul Henri d'Holbach, from System of Nature
    Daniel Dennett, from Elbow Room
    2. Determinism Versus Indeterminism
    Robert Kane, On Indeterminism
    3. The Role of Consciousness
    4. Soft Determinism
    John Stuart Mill, On Causation and Necessity
    David Hume, On Causation and Character
    Robert Kane, On "Wiggle Room"
    Harry Frankfurt, from "Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person"
    D. Compulsion and Ignorance
    Aristotle, On Voluntary Action
    Judith Orr, "Sex, Ignorance, and Freedom"
    John Hospers, from "What Means This Freedom?"
    B. F. Skinner, Beyond Freedom
    B. F. Skinner, from Walden Two
    Robert Kane, Beyond Skinner
    Anthony Burgess, from A Clockwork Orange
    Catherine MacKinnon, On Coercion of Women's Sexuality
    E. Freedom in Practice: Kant's Solution
    F. Radical Freedom: Existentialism
    Jean-Paul Sartre, On "Absolute Freedom"
    Fyodor Dostoyevsky, from "The Most Advantageous Advantage"
    Thich Nhat Hanh, from "Turning on the Television"
    A. Morality
    B. Is Morality Relative?
    Gilbert Harman, from "Moral Relativism Defended"
    * St. Thomas Aquinas, from The Summa Theologica
    John Corvino, from Same Sex: Debating the Ethics, Science, and Culture of Homosexuality
    C. Egoism and Altruism
    Plato, from The Republic
    D. Are We Naturally Selfish? A Debate
    Mencius, On Human Nature: Man Is Good
    Xunzi, from "Human Nature Is Evil"
    Joseph Butler, Against Egoism
    E. Morality as Virtue: Aristotle
    Aristotle, from The Nicomachean Ethics
    F. Morality and Sentiment: Hume and Rousseau
    David Hume, On "Reason as Slave of the Passions"
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau, from Émile
    G. Morality and Practical Reason: Kant
    Immanuel Kant, from Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals
    H. Utilitarianism
    Jeremy Bentham, from An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation
    John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism
    I. The Creation of Morality: Nietzsche and Existentialism
    Friedrich Nietzsche, On "Morality as Herd-Instinct"; On "Master and Slave Morality"
    Jean-Paul Sartre, from Existentialism as a Humanism
    * J. Pragmatism in Ethics
    * John Dewey, from The Quest for Certainty
    K. Ethics and Gender
    Virginia Held, On Feminist Ethics
    A. The Problem of Justice
    B. Two Ancient Theories of Justice: Plato and Aristotle
    Plato, from The Republic
    Aristotle, from The Nicomachean Ethics
    C. Two Modern Theories of Justice: Hume and Mill on Utility and Rights
    David Hume, on "Justice and Utility"
    John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism
    D. The Social Contract
    Thomas Hobbes, from Leviathan
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau, from The Social Contract
    Thomas Jefferson et al., from The Declaration of Independence
    E. Fairness and Entitlement
    John Rawls, from "Justice as Fairness"
    Robert Nozick, from Anarchy, State, and Utopia
    F. Justice or Care: A Feminist Perspective
    Cheshire Calhoun, from "Justice, Care, Gender Bias"
    G. Individual Rights and Freedom
    John Locke, from The Second Treatise on Government; from On Liberty
    Malcolm X, On Civil and Human Rights
    Amartya Sen, from "Property and Hunger"
    H. Fighting for Rights and Justice: Civil Disobedience
    Henry David Thoreau, from "Resistance to Civil Government" ("Civil Disobedience")
    * Martin Luther King, Jr., from "Letter from Birmingham Jail"