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Cover

Interpersonal Communication

Seventh Edition

Sarah Trenholm and Arthur Jensen

Publication Date - December 2011

ISBN: 9780199827503

432 pages
Paperback
8 x 10 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $91.95

An interdisciplinary approach that focuses on communication competence in order to analyze and understand what it means to communicate in today's world

Description

The seventh edition of Interpersonal Communication continues the tradition of excellence established by this theory-driven text. Its unique learning model, which emphasizes communication competence, stands at the forefront of the discipline. Now featuring a four-color interior and an entirely new art program, it remains at the highest level of scholarship offered for courses in interpersonal communication.

New to this Edition

  • -New highlighted boxes, "Interdisciplinary Connections," make the applications of the social-scientific theory presented in the text more engaging
  • -Further integration of the communication competence model, which has been made clearer and reappears several times throughout the text
  • -A new chapter on Listening
  • -Six new "Screening Room" that relate concepts to popular movies and television shows

About the Author(s)

Sarah Trenholm is Professor of Speech Communication at Ithaca College.

Arthur Jensen is Professor of Communicaiton and Associate Dean of the College of Visual and Performing Arts at Syracuse University.

Previous Publication Date(s)

April 2007
August 2003
July 1999

Reviews

"Interpersonal Communication continues to be among the most well-written, comprehensive, and user-friendly textbooks available for the interpersonal communication classroom. It is accessible across a wide range of student backgrounds, abilities, and class-levels, and I am impressed with Trenholm and Jensen's ongoing commitment to revisions that include current scholarly theory and research."--Randall J. Koper, University of the Pacific

"The communication competence model is an excellent feature of the textbook. It's a wonderful conceptualization of what is truly involved in communication competence."--Virginia Hamilton, University of California, Davis

"Interpersonal Communication presents coverage of all of the topics and theories you would expect and want in a textbook."--Marcia D. Dixson, Indiana-Purdue at Fort Wayne

"Communicative competence is fully integrated throughout this introductory text and illustrates how complex effective interpersonal communication really is."--Melanie Finney, DePauw University

Table of Contents

    PART 1
    Introductory Perspectives

    Chapter 1: Communication and Competence

    What is Communication?
    Definitions of Human Communication
    Characteristics of Communication
    Communication is a Process
    Communication is Uniquely Human
    Communication is a Collective Activity
    Communication is a Creative Endeavor
    Communication is Regulatory
    Summary and Implications
    A Model of Communication Competence
    Process Competence: Knowledge About Communication
    Message Competence
    Interpretive Competence
    Role Competence
    Self Competence
    Goal Competence
    Culture and Context
    Historical Change and Cultural Values
    How Technology Affects Cultural Context
    Relational Cultures as Context
    Performative Competence: Acting on Knowledge
    Skill Building: On Taking a Process Perspective
    Process to Performance
    Questioning Communication Revisited
    Review Terms
    Suggested Readings
    Online Student Resources
    Observation Guides
    Exercises

    Interdisciplinary Connections 1: Bonzo Goes to College
    Interdisciplinary Connections 2: Insulting the Meat
    Research in Review: Getting the Most Out of College
    Screening Room: Meet the Parents

    Chapter 2: Building Interpersonal Relationships
    What is Interpersonal Communication?
    The Situational Approach to Interpersonal Communication
    The Developmental Approach to Interpersonal Communication
    The Role of Interpersonal Communication in Relationships
    What is a Relationship?
    The Characteristics of Relationships
    Relational Paths: Intimacy and Distance
    Private vs. Public Relationships
    Independence vs. Conformity
    What Does It Take To Be Relational Competent?
    Communication Competence and Relationships
    Some Characteristics of Healthy Relationships
    Skill Building: A Preview
    Process to Performance
    Questioning Communication Revisited
    Review Terms
    Suggested Readings
    Online Student Resources
    Observation Guides
    Exercises

    Interdisciplinary Connections 1: The Neuroscience of Love
    Interdisciplinary Connections 2: Mind Your Manners
    Research in Review: Stress and Interpersonal Communication
    Screening Room: Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind

    PART 2
    Sending and Receiving Messages

    Chapter 3: Nonverbal Communication
    What is Nonverbal Communication?
    Spontaneous Communication
    Symbolic Communication
    The Power of Nonverbal Codes
    The Functions of Nonverbal Codes
    Expressing Meaning
    Modifying Verbal Messages
    Regulating the Flow of Interaction
    The Structure of Nonverbal Codes
    The Visual Communication System
    Proxemics
    Environmental Preference
    Territoriality
    Personal Space
    Kinesics
    Body Movements
    Types of Gestures
    Gaze
    The Expressive Function of Gaze
    Using Gaze to Monitor and Regulate Interaction
    Looking vs. Seeing
    Facial Expression
    Universal Expressions
    Misreading Facial Expressions
    Artifacts
    Physical Appearance
    Clothing and Adornment
    The Auditory Communication System
    Vocal Characteristics
    Messages in the Voice
    The Invisible Communication System
    Chronemics
    Olfactics
    Haptics
    Types of Touch
    The Contexts and Functions of Touch
    Culture and Nonverbal Communication
    Balancing Nonverbal Codes
    Expectancy Violations Theory
    Cognitive Valence Theory
    Compensating and Reciprocating in Everyday Life
    The Interplay of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication
    Skill Building: Communicating Feelings
    Expressing Feelings
    Reflecting Feelings
    Process to Performance
    Questioning Communication Revisited
    Review Terms
    Suggested Readings
    Online Student Resources
    Observation Guides
    Exercises

    Interdisciplinary Connection 1: A Better Place to Live
    Interdisciplinary Connection 2:The Guarded Self
    Research in Review: Pinocchio's Nose
    Screening Room: Freaky Friday


    Chapter 4: Language and Interpersonal Communication
    What is Language?
    How Verbal and Nonverbal Codes Differ
    Characteristics of Verbal Codes
    The Functions of Language
    The Structure of Language
    Semantic Meaning: Language at the Level of the Word
    Denotative and Connotative Meanings
    The Importance of Semantic Competence
    Syntactic Meaning: Language at the Level of the Sentence
    Order as Meaning
    The Importance of Syntactic Competence
    Pragmatic Meaning: Language at the Level of the Speech Act
    Language in Use
    Interpreting and Producing Speech Acts
    Using Pragmatic Rules in Interaction
    Message Production: Achieving Pragmatic Goals
    Language, Power, and Politics
    The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
    Language and Labels
    Identity and Language Use
    Social Class and Discourse
    Gender and Discourse
    Early Findings
    Later Criticisms
    Language, Domination, and Freedom
    Avoiding Sexist Language
    Skill Building: Initiating Conversation
    Starting to Talk
    Finding a Topic
    Asking Questions
    Using Free Information during Conversation
    Closing Conversations
    Process to Performance
    Questioning Communication Revisited
    Review Terms
    Suggested Readings
    Online Student Resources
    Observation Guides
    Exercises

    Interdisciplinary Connection 1: Speaking with Names
    Interdisciplinary Connection 2: From Raillery to Rant
    Research Review: Please and Thank You, Two Magic Words
    Screening Room 1: The King's Speech

    Chapter 5: Listening

    What is Listening?
    Listening vs. Hearing
    The Listening Process
    Beyond Accuracy: Listening Relationally
    Listening and the New Technologies
    Ways of Listening
    Types of Listening
    Listening Styles
    What Should We Listen For?
    Conflict Management and Effective Listening
    When are Conflicts Healthy?
    Why Are Conflicts Difficult to Manage?
    Hot Emotions
    Biased Perceptions
    Communication Obstacles
    Personal Differences in Conflict Management
    Attitudes about Human Nature
    Emotional Intelligence
    Skill Building: Becoming a More Competent Listener
    Improving Comprehension and Evaluation
    Enhancing Empathic Listening
    Process to Performance
    Questioning Communication Revisited
    Review Terms
    Suggested Readings
    Online Student Resources
    Observation Guides
    Exercises

    Interdisciplinary Connections 1: Hot Under the Collar or Cool Under Fire
    Interdisciplinary Connections 2: Do Crows Really Use SUVs to Crack Nuts?
    Research in Review: When Parents and Children Don't See Eye to Eye
    Screening Room: About a Boy


    Chapter 6: Perceiving and Interpreting Social Worlds
    Factors that Affect the Way we See the World
    Emotions and Perception
    Motivation and Perception
    Cognitive Structures and Perception
    Schematic Thinking and Information Processing
    Schemata that Describe and Classify People
    Personal Constructs
    Person Prototypes and Stereotypes
    Stereotypes
    Schemata that Define Roles and Relationships
    Schemata Containing Information about the Self
    Schemata that Tell Us What to Do in Social Situations
    Social Cognition and Interpersonal Interaction
    Sizing up Situations
    Episode Identification
    Using Scripts to Guide Interaction
    The Invisibility of Situational Constraints
    Perceiving Other People
    Using Personal Constructs to Judge Others
    Implicit Personality Theories and Interaction
    Evaluating Relationships
    Self-Monitoring
    Creating Relational Definitions
    Explaining Behavior by Making Attributions
    Personality vs. Situation
    Attributional Biases
    Overestimating Personality
    Underestimating the Situation
    Seeing Things from Our Own Perspective
    Categorical Thinking and Interpretive Competence
    Naïve Realism: Seeing What We Believe
    Dual Processing and Impression Formation
    Attention and Identification
    Controlled Categorization
    Personalization
    Skill Building: Becoming More Mindful
    Mindfulness and Open-Mindedness
    Increasing Mindfulness
    Process to Performance
    Questioning Communication Revisited
    Review Terms
    Suggested Readings
    Online Student Resources
    Observation Guides
    Exercises

    Interdisciplinary Connection 1: The Power of the Present
    Interdisciplinary Connection 2: Making Sense by Using Reflections and Interpretations
    Research in Review: When Being Mindful Really Matters
    Screening Room: Memento


    Chapter 7: Meeting Social Expectations


    Creating Social Identities
    Social Control and Conformity
    The Nature of Social Roles
    Choosing Our Roles
    Social Support and Role Identity
    The Looking-Glass Self
    Social Comparison Processes
    Commitment and Role Identity
    Rewards and Role Identity
    How Social Roles Affect Communication
    Communication as Performance
    Face-Work and the Social Self
    Other Aspects of Everyday Performance
    Sets, Costumes, and Props
    Backstage Behavior
    Ensemble Acting
    Communication as Story-telling
    Skill-Building: Showing Politeness and Respect
    Interpersonal Sensitivity
    Avoiding Threats to Face
    Balancing Solidarity and Independence
    Process to Performance
    Questioning Communication Revisited
    Review Terms
    Suggested Readings
    Online Student Resources
    Observation Guides
    Exercises

    Interdisciplinary Connection 7.1: They Just Like to Be Not the Same as Us
    Interdisciplinary Connection 7.2: Talking Tough in Teamsterville
    Research in Review 7.1: Guys Can't Say That to Guys
    Screening room 7.1: Big Fish

    Chapter 8: Establishing Individual Identities
    The Self in History
    Self Concepts: Gaining Independence from Social Roles and Rules
    What is the Self-Concept?
    Self as Narrative
    Self as Cognitive Schema
    Self as Behavior
    Self as Relational Achievement
    Self as Internal Dialogue
    Personality Differences and Interpersonal Communication
    Communicator Styles
    Rhetorical Sensitivity
    The Noble Self
    The Rhetorical Reflector
    The Rhetorical Sensitive
    Communication Apprehension
    Attachment Styles
    Intimacy Motivation
    Skill-Building: Improving Competence Through Self-Disclosure
    What is Self Disclosure?
    General Rules for Revealing the Self
    A Case Study in Disclosure: Coming Out
    How to Reveal Same Sex Orientation
    What to Say When a Friend Comes Out
    Process to Performance
    Questioning Communication Revisited
    Review Terms
    Suggested Readings
    Online Student Resources
    Observation Guides
    Exercises

    Interdisciplinary Connection 1: The Saturated Self
    Interdisciplinary Connection 2: Zen and the Art of Selflessness
    Research Review: Presentation of Self in Cyberspace
    Screening Room 1: Big Eden

    Chapter 9: Achieving Personal and Relational Goals
    What is Interpersonal Influence?
    Types of Influence
    Culture and Influence
    Issues in Influence
    Skills for Goal Achievement
    Face and Interpersonal Influence
    Symbolic Role-Taking
    Theories of Influence; Understanding Others' Needs
    The Need for Rewards
    Classical Conditioning
    Operant Conditioning
    Social Learning
    Social Exchange Processes
    The Need for Consistency
    Cognitive Dissonance Theory
    Ways to Reduce Dissonance
    Commitment and Consistency
    The Need to Establish Identity
    Value Theory
    Relationships and Self Validation
    Summary: Choice and Motivation
    Source Characteristics
    Power and Interpersonal Influence
    Self-Presentation Strategies
    Influence as Self-Persuasion
    Message Strategies
    Compliance-Seeking Strategies
    Strategies in Interaction
    Skill Building: Steps to Goal Achievement
    Principles of Goal Competence
    Becoming Appropriately Assertive
    Process to Performance
    Questioning Communication Revisited
    Review Terms
    Suggested Readings
    Online Student Resources
    Observation Guides
    Exercises

    Interdisciplinary Connection 1: Weapons of Influence
    Interdisciplinary Connection 2: What's in a Name?
    Research in Review: Wait 'Till you Hear What I Heard
    Screening Room: Thank You For Smoking

    PART 3
    Relational contexts
    Chapter 10: Understanding Family Relationships
    Maintaining Family Ties
    The Family as a System
    Family Structures
    Power-Authority Structure
    Decision-Making Structure
    Interaction Structure
    Characteristics of Family Structures
    Role Differentiation
    Boundaries
    Coordination of Subsystems
    The Functions of the Family
    Internal Functions
    Providing Care
    Socialization
    Intellectual Development
    Recreation
    Emotional Support
    External functions
    Cultural Transmission
    Accommodation
    Families and Change
    The Dynamics of Family Evolution
    The Family Life Cycle
    Stressful Contact with Outside Sources
    Illness or Death of a Family Member
    Divorce or Separation of Family Members
    Strategies for Coping with Change
    Anticipating Change
    Encouraging Family Cohesiveness
    Maintaining Adaptability
    Building Social Networks
    Family Communication Patterns
    Family Rules and Family Identity
    Establishing Communication Rules
    Regulative Rules
    Constitutive rules
    Family Themes and Identity
    Interaction in Family Subsystems
    Husbands and Wives
    Parents and Children
    Siblings
    Families in History
    Skill Building: Communicating to Comfort
    Process to Performance
    Questioning Communication Revisited
    Review Terms
    Suggested Readings
    Online Student Resources
    Observation Guides
    Exercises

    Interdisciplinary Connection 1: Creating Hallmark Moments
    Interdisciplinary Connection 2: Divorce is When Your Family is Dead
    Research in Review: You're My Parent But You're Not
    Screening Room: The Kids Are All Right


    Chapter 11: Creating Intimate Relationships
    What is Intimacy?
    Have People Always Had Intimate Relationships?
    Moving from Public to Private Relationships
    Factors that Influence Definitions of Intimacy
    ` Family Messages
    Recent Cultural Messages
    Environnemental Conditions
    Individual Relational Messages and Intimacy
    Sending Dominance Messages
    Dimensions of Intimacy
    Relational Contracts and Cultures
    Opening the Door to Intimacy: Interpersonal Attraction
    Duck's Filtering Theory of Attraction
    Interpersonal Magnets
    Physical Beauty
    Similarity
    Reciprocal Liking
    Complementary Needs
    Costs and Rewards
    Other Sources of Attraction
    Coming Closer: Creating Intimate Relationships
    Stages in the Development of Romantic Coupling
    Initiating
    Experimenting
    Intensifying
    Integrating
    Bonding
    The Development of Friendship
    Rawlins' Friendship Stages
    Types of Friendships
    Keeping It Together: Relational Maintenance
    Balancing Relational Dialectics
    The Expressive-Protective Dialectic
    The Autonomy-Togetherness Dialectic
    The Novelty-Predictability Dialectic
    The Gender Role Dialectic
    Working Out Dialectic Tensions
    Perceptual Biases during Maintenance
    Relational Maintenance Behaviors
    Too Close for Comfort: When Relationships Self-Destruct
    Stages in Relational Deterioration
    Differentiating
    Circumscribing
    Stagnating
    Avoiding
    Terminating
    Dysfunctional Relational Patterns
    Why Patterns Are Important
    Unhealthy Patterns of Communication
    Problems of Punctuation
    Disconfirming Responses
    Double Binds and Paradoxes
    URPs and Spirals
    Signs of Trouble to Come
    Successful Couples
    Unstable Couples
    Gottman's Four Horsemen
    Criticism
    Contempt
    Defensiveness
    Stonewalling

    Skill Building: Offering Effective Feedback
    Process to Performance
    Questioning Communication Revisited
    Review Terms
    Suggested Readings
    Online Student Resources
    Observation Guides
    Exercises

    Interdisciplinary Connection 1: Playing the Dating Game
    Interdisciplinary connection 2: Long Distance Dating Relationships
    Research in Review: Screening Room: The Social Network

    Chapter 12: Managing Professional Relationships
    Interpersonal Communication in Public Situations
    Public Realms in History
    Interacting in the Public Realm Today
    Enacting Roles and Scripts
    Showing and Deserving Respect
    Avoidance Rituals
    Presentational Rituals
    Demeanor
    Giving Priority to Practical Goals
    Making Room for Expressive Behavior
    Communicating in Our Communities
    Space and Place: Community Design and Communication
    Third Places: Connecting with Your Community
    Interacting in the Workplace
    Sizing Up Organizational Cultures
    Learning the Ropes
    Attending to Organizational Stories and Rituals
    Narratives and Stories
    Rituals and Practices
    Participating in Communication Networks
    Joining the Team
    Leading the Team
    Building Teamwork Skills
    Establishing Norms
    Developing Cohesion
    Coping with Supervision and Status
    Status Differences in Communication
    Effective Supervisory Communication
    Serving the Customer
    One-to-One Marketing
    Internal Customer Relations
    Balancing Personal and Professional Relationships
    Framing Friendship in the Workplace
    Managing the Office Romance
    Deciphering the Boundaries between Home, Work, and Community
    Skill Building: Approaches to Workplace Conflict
    Choosing Your Conflict Style
    Taking a Problem-Solving Approach to Negotiation
    Compromise vs. Problem-Solving
    Problem-Solving Strategies
    Rules for Cooperative Problem-Solving
    Process to Performance
    Questioning Communication Revisited
    Review Terms
    Suggested Readings
    Online Student Resources
    Observation Guides
    Exercises

    Interdisciplinary Connection 1: The Conversational Organization
    Interdisciplinary Connection 2: Sorry, I'm Not Apologizing
    Research Review: Lessons from The Apprentice
    Screening Room 1: Barbershop
    Screening Room 2: Office Spaces

    Chapter 13: Interpersonal Communication, Culture, and Change
    Cultural Influences
    Dimensions of Difference
    Locus of Control: Control vs. Constraint
    Action Orientation: Doing vs. Being
    Attitudes Toward Time: M-time vs. P-time
    Connections to Others: Individualism vs. Collectivism
    Communication Styles: Low-Context vs. High-Context
    American Cultural Patterns
    Ethnic, Regional, and Class Differences
    Shifting Cultural Identities
    Ethnicity and Language Choices
    Regional and Class Differences
    Communicating Across Culture
    Barriers to Intercultural Understanding
    Prejudice
    Communicating Prejudice
    Ethnocentrism
    Assumed Similarity
    Historical Influences
    The Colonial Period (1600-1780)
    The Colonial Household
    Codes of Conduct
    Social Identity and Patriarchy
    Gender Roles and Social Identity
    The Early Industrial Period (1830-1880)
    Social Change and Anxiety
    The l9th-Century Home
    Rudeness and Civility
    Gender Roles and Personal Identity
    The Modern Period (1900-1960)
    Mass Consumption and the American Dream
    Home and Family Values
    Personality and Self-Expression
    Sex and Self-Discovery
    Skill Building: Increasing Sensitivity to Context
    Adapting to International Differences
    Increasing Co-cultural Understanding
    Process to Performance
    Questioning Communication Revisited
    Review Terms
    Suggested Readings
    Online Student Resources
    Observation Guides
    Exercises

    Interdisciplinary Connection 1: The Thrill of Victory
    Interdisciplinary Connection 2: If You Can't Stand the Shame
    Research in Review: When Nobody Knows Who You Really Are
    Screening Room: Crash

Teaching Resources

SUPPORT PACKAGE FOR INSTRUCTORS:

-Instructor's Manual

-Instructor's Resource CD with Computerized Test Bank

-A Companion Website featuring chapter outlines, review questions, and PowerPoint-based slides is available at www.oup.com/us/trenholm

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