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Cover

Fabrication Engineering at the Micro- and Nanoscale

Fourth Edition

Stephen A. Campbell

Publication Date - November 2012

ISBN: 9780199861224

688 pages
Paperback
7-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $114.00

A thorough and accessible introduction to all fields of micro- and nanofabrication

Description

Designed for advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate courses in semiconductor or microelectronic fabrication, Fabrication Engineering at the Micro- and Nanoscale, Fourth Edition, covers the entire basic unit processes used to fabricate integrated circuits and other devices.

With many worked examples and detailed illustrations, this engaging introduction provides the tools needed to understand the frontiers of fabrication processes.

New to this Edition

  • Coverage of many new topics including: - the flash and spike annealing processes - extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography - GaN epitaxial growth and doping - double exposure routes to sub-35-nm lithography - architectures for nanoscale CMOS as practiced at the 45-nm node - trigate or FINFET CMOS planned for 22 nm and below - bulk silicon and thin film solar cell manufacturing - GaN LED fabrication - microfluidics
  • Updated sections on nonoptical lithography
  • Expanded content on state-of-the-art CMOS
  • A Companion Website with PowerPoint slides of figures from the text (www.oup.com/us/campbell)
  • An Instructor's Solutions Manual, available to registered adopters of the text (978-0-19-986121-7)

About the Author(s)

Stephen A. Campbell is the Bordeau Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Minnesota and a fellow of IEEE.

Previous Publication Date(s)

November 2012
September 2007
February 2001

Reviews

"This is one of the best texts in the field. It provides the most complete coverage of fabrication techniques."--Xian-An Cao, West Virginia University

"I like Campbell's style and enjoy reading the text. The material is appropriate for the intended audience and there are good summaries of background material."--Trevor Thornton, Arizona State University

Table of Contents

    * = This section provides background material.
    ** = This section contains advanced material and can be omitted without loss of the basic content of the course.

    PART I. OVERVIEW AND MATERIALS

    Chapter 1. An Introduction to Microelectronic Fabrication
    1.1 Microelectronic Technologies: A Simple Example
    1.2 Unit Processes and Technologies
    1.3 A Roadmap for the Course
    1.4 Summary

    Chapter 2. Semiconductor Substrates
    2.1 Phase Diagrams and Solid Solubility*
    2.2 Crystallography and Crystal Structure*
    2.3 Crystal Defects
    2.4 Czochralski Growth
    2.5 Bridgman Growth of GaAs
    2.6 Float Zone and Other Growth
    2.7 Wafer Preparation and Specifications
    2.8 Summary and Future Trends
    Problems
    References

    PART II. UNIT PROCESSES I: HOT PROCESSING AND ION IMPLANTATION

    Chapter 3. Diffusion
    3.1 Fick's Diffusion Equation in One Dimension
    3.2 Atomistic Models of Diffusion
    3.3 Analytic Solutions of Fick's Law
    3.4 Diffusion Coefficients for Common Dopants
    3.5 Analysis of Diffused Profiles
    3.6 Diffusion in SiO
    3.7 Simulations of Diffusion Profiles
    3.8 Summary
    Problems
    References

    Chapter 4. Thermal Oxidation
    4.1 The Deal-Grove Model of Oxidation
    4.2 The Linear and Parabolic Rate Coefficients
    4.3 The Initial Oxidation Regime
    4.4 The Structure of SiO2
    4.5 Oxide Characterization
    4.6 The Effects of Dopants During Oxidation and Polysilicon Oxidation
    4.7 Silicon Oxynitrides
    4.8 Alternative Gate Insulators**
    4.9 Oxidation Systems
    4.10 Numeric Oxidations**
    4.11 Summary
    Problems
    References

    Chapter 5. Ion Implantation
    5.1 Idealized Ion Implantation Systems
    5.2 Coulomb Scattering*
    5.3 Vertical Projected Range
    5.4 Channeling and Lateral Projected Range
    5.5 Implantation Damage
    5.6 Shallow Junction Formation**
    5.7 Buried Dielectrics**
    5.8 Ion Implantation Systems: Problems and Concerns
    5.9 Numerical Implanted Profiles**
    5.10 Summary
    Problems
    References

    Chapter 6. Rapid Thermal Processing
    6.1 Gray Body Radiation, Heat Exchange, and Optical Absorption
    6.2 High Intensity Optical Sources and Chamber Design
    6.3 Temperature Measurement
    6.4 Thermoplastic Stress*
    6.5 Rapid Thermal Activation of Impurities
    6.6 Rapid Thermal Processing of Dielectrics
    6.7 Silicidation and Contact Formation
    6.8 Alternative Rapid Thermal Processing Systems
    6.9 Summary
    Problems
    References

    PART III. UNIT PROCESSES 2: PATTERN TRANSFER

    Chapter 7. Optical Lithography
    7.1 Lithography Overview
    7.2 Diffraction*
    7.3 The Modulation Transfer Function and Optical Exposures
    7.4 Source Systems and Spatial Coherence
    7.5 Contact/Proximity Printers
    7.6 Projection Printers
    7.7 Advanced Mask Concepts**
    7.8 Surface Reflections and Standing Waves
    7.9 Alignment
    7.10 Summary
    Problems
    References

    Chapter 8. Photoresists
    8.1 Photoresist Types
    8.2 Organic Materials and Polymers*
    8.3 Typical Reactions of DQN Positive Photoresist
    8.4 Contrast Curves
    8.5 The Critical Modulation Transfer Function
    8.6 Applying and Developing Photoresist
    8.7 Second-Order Exposure Effects
    8.8 Advanced Photoresists and Photoresist Processes**
    8.9 Summary
    Problems
    References

    Chapter 9. Nonoptical Lithographic Techniques**
    9.1 Interactions of High Energy Beams with Matter*
    9.2 Direct-Write Electron Beam Lithography Systems
    9.3 Direct-Write Electron Beam Lithography: Summary and Outlook
    9.4 X-ray and EUV Sources*
    9.5 Proximity X-ray Exposure Systems
    9.6 Membrane Masks for Proximity X-ray
    9.7 EUV Lithography
    9.8 Projection Electron Beam Lithography (SCALPEL)
    9.9 E-beam and X-ray Resists
    9.10 Radiation Damage in MOS Devices
    9.11 Soft Lithography and Nanoimprint Lithography
    9.12 Summary
    Problems
    References

    Chapter 10. Vacuum Science and Plasmas
    10.1 The Kinetic Theory of Gases*
    10.2 Gas Flow and Conductance
    10.3 Pressure Ranges and Vacuum Pumps
    10.4 Vacuum Seals and Pressure Measurement
    10.5 The DC Glow Discharge*
    10.6 RF Discharges
    10.7 High Density Plasmas
    10.8 Summary
    Problems
    References

    Chapter 11. Etching
    11.1 Wet Etching
    11.2 Chemical Mechanical Polishing
    11.3 Basic Regimes of Plasma Etching
    11.4 High Pressure Plasma Etching
    11.5 Ion Milling
    11.6 Reactive Ion Etching
    11.7 Damage in Reactive Ion Etching**
    11.8 High Density Plasma (HDP) Etching
    11.9 Liftoff
    11.10 Summary
    Problems
    References

    PART IV. UNIT PROCESSES 3: THIN FILMS

    Chapter 12. Physical Deposition: Evaporation and Sputtering
    12.1 Phase Diagrams: Sublimation and Evaporation*
    12.2 Deposition Rates
    12.3 Step Coverage
    12.4 Evaporator Systems: Crucible Heating Techniques
    12.5 Multicomponent Films
    12.6 An Introduction to Sputtering
    12.7 Physics of Sputtering*
    12.8 Deposition Rate: Sputter Yield
    12.9 High Density Plasma Sputtering
    12.10 Morphology and Step Coverage
    12.11 Sputtering Methods
    12.12 Sputtering of Specific Materials
    12.13 Stress in Deposited Layers
    12.14 Summary
    Problems
    References

    Chapter 13. Chemical Vapor Deposition
    13.1 A Simple CVD System for the Deposition of Silicon
    13.2 Chemical Equilibrium and the Law of Mass Action*
    13.3 Gas Flow and Boundary Layers*
    13.4 Evaluation of the Simple CVD System
    13.5 Atmospheric CVD of Dielectrics
    13.6 Low Pressure CVD of Dielectrics and Semiconductors in Hot Wall Systems
    13.7 Plasma-enhanced CVD of Dielectrics
    13.8 Metal CVD**
    13.9 Atomic Layer Deposition
    13.10 Electroplating Copper
    13.11 Summary
    Problems
    References

    Chapter 14. Epitaxial Growth
    14.1 Wafer Cleaning and Native Oxide Removal
    14.2 The Thermodynamics of Vapor Phase Growth
    14.3 Surface Reactions
    14.4 Dopant Incorporation
    14.5 Defects in Epitaxial Growth
    14.6 Selective Growth*
    14.7 Halide Transport GaAs Vapor Phase Epitaxy
    14.8 Incommensurate and Strained Layer Heteroepitaxy
    14.9 Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD)
    14.10 Advanced Silicon Vapor Phase Epitaxial Growth Techniques
    14.11 Molecular Beam Epitaxy Technology
    14.12 BCF Theory**
    14.13 Gas Source MBE and Chemical Beam Epitaxy**
    14.14 Summary
    Problems
    References

    PART V. PROCESS INTEGRATION

    Chapter 15. Device Isolation, Contacts, and Metallization
    15.1 Junction and Oxide Isolation
    15.2 LOCOS Methods
    15.3 Trench Isolation
    15.4 Silicon-on-Insulator Isolation Techniques
    15.5 Semi-insulating Substrates
    15.6 Schottky Contacts
    15.7 Implanted Ohmic Contacts
    15.8 Alloyed Contacts
    15.9 Multilevel Metallization
    15.10 Planarization and Advanced Interconnect
    15.11 Summary
    Problems
    References

    Chapter 16. CMOS Technologies
    16.1 Basic Long-Channel Device Behavior
    16.2 Early MOS Technologies
    16.3 The Basic 3-µm Technology
    16.4 Device Scaling
    16.5 Hot Carrier Effects and Drain Engineering
    16.6 Latchup
    16.7 Shallow Source/Drains and Tailored Channel Doping
    16.8 The Universal Curve and Advanced CMOS
    16.9 A Nanoscale CMOS Process
    16.10 Nonplanar CMOS
    16.11 Summary
    Problems
    References

    Chapter 17. Other Transistor Technologies
    17.1 Basic MESFET Operation
    17.2 Basic MESFET Technology
    17.3 Digital Technologies
    17.4 MMIC Technologies
    17.5 MODFETs
    17.6 Review of Bipolar Devices: Ideal and Quasi-ideal Behavior
    17.7 Performance of BJTs
    17.8 Early Bipolar Processes
    17.9 Advanced Bipolar Processes
    17.10 BiCMOS
    17.11 Thin Film Transistors
    17.12 Summary
    Problems
    References

    Chapter 18. Optoelectronic and Solar Technologies
    18.1 Optoelectronic Devices Overview
    18.2 Direct-Gap Inorganic LEDs
    18.3 Polymer/Organic Light-Emitting Diodes
    18.4 Lasers
    18.5 Photovoltaic Devices Overview
    18.6 Silicon Based Photovoltaic Device Fabrication
    18.7 Other Photovoltaic Technologies
    18.8 Summary
    References

    Chapter 19. MEMS
    19.1 Fundamentals of Mechanics
    19.2 Stress in Thin Films
    19.3 Mechanical-to-Electrical Transduction
    19.4 Mechanics of Common MEMS Devices
    19.5 Bulk Micromachining Etching Techniques
    19.6 Bulk Micromachining Process Flow
    19.7 Surface Micromachining Basics
    19.8 Surface Micromachining Process Flow
    19.9 MEMS Actuators
    19.10 High Aspect Ratio Microsystems Technology (HARMST)
    19.11 Microfluidics
    19.12 Summary
    Problems
    References

    Appendix I. Acronyms and Common Symbols
    Appendix II. Properties of Selected Semiconductor Materials
    Appendix III. Physical Constants
    Appendix IV. Conversion Factors
    Appendix V. Some Properties of the Error Function
    Appendix VI. F Values
    Index