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Cover

Essential Logic

Basic Reasoning Skills for the Twenty-First Century

Ronald C. Pine

Publication Date - October 1995

ISBN: 9780195155051

432 pages
Paperback
7 x 9-1/4 inches

Retail Price to Students: $95.95

Description

Essential Logic offers:
BL Readability. A dialogue-like yet challenging style makes this introductory logic textbook engaging and interesting.
BL Essentials. Deductive and inductive reasoning, formal and informal logic are placed within a philosophical perspective.
BL Rigor. A careful sequence of learning steps communicates the essential skills of reasoning and directs students to write, support, and argue by connecting criticism to key concepts.
BL Relevance. Explanations and examples take students' lives into consideration and are designed for students with diverse backgrounds and a wide range of experiences.
BL A Theme. Traditional concepts are integrated with a discussion of modern technological issues and the world view of modern science. A unique chapter on Logic and Hope addresses questions students often ask and suggests a global perspective.
BL Controversy. Students are encouraged to defend and critique positions--including those presented by the author. A unique final chapter on Fuzzy Logic is framed as a debate between Western and Eastern philosophy.
BL Exercises. Students gain confidence in recognizing arguments, structuring them into premises and conclusions, identifying and critiquing informal fallacies, while learning to create, follow, and appreciate symbolic reasoning trails.
BL Coverage. Chapters cover Argument Recognition and Language Analysis, Inductive Reasoning, Structuring Informal Fallacies, Symbolic Translation, Truth Tables, Formal Proofs of Validity, Quantification, and the basics of Fuzzy Set Theory and Propositional Logic.

Table of Contents

    Preface
    Introduction
    Chapter 1 - Why Study Logic
    Logic as a Defensive Tool
    Deductive Reasoning
    Valid, Invalid, and Sound Arguments
    Logic and Belief Testing
    Key Terminology
    Concept Summary
    Exercises
    Chapter 2 - Arguments and Language
    Recognizing Arguments
    Other Uses of Language
    Meaning and Clarification
    What is Truth?
    Key Terminology
    Concept Summary
    Exercises
    Chapter 3 - Inductive Reasoning and Reasonable Beliefs
    Deduction and Induction
    Induction and Reliable Beliefs
    Induction: A Case Study
    Logic and Creativity
    Key Terminology
    Concept Summary
    Exercises
    Chapter 4 - Informal Fallacies I
    Introduction
    The Value of Abstraction
    Fallacies of Relevance
    Appeal to Popularity
    Appeal to Authority
    Traditional Wisdom
    Provincialism
    Appeal to Loyalty
    Two Wrongs Make a Right
    Ad Hominem Abusive and Circumstantial
    Irrelevant Reason
    Key Terminology
    Concept Summary
    Exercises
    Chapter 5 - Informal Fallacies II
    Introduction
    Fallacies of Questionable Premise
    Slippery Slope
    Questionable Dilemma
    Straw Person
    Fallacies of Weak Induction
    Hasty Conclusion
    Questionable Cause
    Appeal to Ignorance
    Fallacies of Presumption
    Begging the Question
    Complex Question
    Ambiguity-Equivocation
    Questionable Analogy
    Suppressed Evidence
    Key Terminology
    Concept Summary
    Exercises
    Chapter 6 - Logic and Hope
    Exercises
    Chapter 7 - Symbolic Translation
    Introduction
    Logical Connectives
    Usage Dictionary of Logical Connectives
    Exercise I
    Exercise II
    Complex Translations, the Use of Parentheses, and Arguments
    Exercise III
    Exercise IV
    Exercise V
    Chapter 8 - Bit Brains Logical Connectives, and Truth Tables
    Introduction
    Symbolic Pictures of Logical Connectives: And, Or, and Not
    Exercise I
    Logical Connectives Continued: If . . . then . . . and If and only if
    Exercise II
    Short Cuts and Human Learning
    Truth Tables, Validity, and Logical Pictures
    Exercise III
    Exercise IV
    Argument Forms and Variables
    Exercise V
    Brief Truth Tables
    Exercise VI
    Chapter 9 - Symbolic Trails and Formal Proofs of Validity
    Introduction
    Constructing Formal Proofs of Validity
    Step 1: Recognizing Forms: Copi's "Nine" Rules of Inference
    Step 1 Exercises
    Strategies for Pattern Recognition
    Step 2: Justifying Reasoning Trails with the Rules of Inference
    Step 2 Exercises
    Step 3: On Your Own, Constructing Formal Proofs with the Rules of Inference
    Step 3 Exercises
    Translations and Formal Proofs
    Chapter 10 - Symbolic Trails and Formal Proofs of Validity, Part 2
    Introduction
    Application Practice
    The Nineteen Rules
    Step 4: Rules of Replacement Exercises
    Commonsense Origins
    Strategies for Pattern Recognition Revisited
    Step 5 Exercises
    Subroutines
    Direction, Strategies, and Working Backward
    Step 6 Exercises
    Brief Truth Tables Revisited and Decision Strategies
    Translation and Formal Proof Exercises
    Holiday Adventures
    Clarification Exercises
    Chapter 11 - Other Logical Tools: Syllogisms and Quantification
    Introduction
    Syllogisms and Quantification Logic
    Usage Dictionary
    Dictionary Elaboration
    Exercise I
    Proving Validity in Quantification Logic
    The Square of Opposition and Change of Quantifier Rules
    Exercise II
    Exercise III
    Exercise IV
    Exercise V
    Exercise VI
    Exercise VII
    Final Note
    Chapter 12 - Frontiers of Logic--Fuzzy Logic: Can Aristotle and Buddha Get Along?
    Introduction
    Bivalent Logic and Paradoxes
    Fuzzy Interpretations and Degrees of Truth
    Fuzzy Conditionals and Fuzzy Validity
    Resolution of Paradoxes and Implications
    Philosophy: What about reality?
    Exercise I
    Exercises II-IV
    Exercises V