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Cover

Energy and The Environment

Scientific and Technological Principles

Second Edition

James A. Fay and Daniel S. Golomb

Publication Date - January 2011

ISBN: 9780199765133

384 pages
Hardcover
7-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $99.95

A technical introduction to the explanation of the connection between energy use and environmental degradation

Description

Now thoroughly updated in its second edition, Energy and the Environment: Scientific and Technological Principles addresses a central problem of urban-industrial society--the interconnectedness of energy usage and environmental degradation--by examining how the rapidly growing use of energy threatens the natural environment at local, regional, and global scales.

Authors James A. Fay and Dan S. Golomb describe fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy technologies and explain their efficiencies for transforming source energy to useful mechanical or electrical power. In particular, they emphasize electric power and the use of transportation vehicles, whose technological improvements increase energy efficiency and reduce air pollutant emissions. Fay and Golomb also analyze the source of toxic emissions to air, water, and land that arise from energy uses and their effects on environmental quality. They pay special attention to global climate change, the contribution made to it by energy uses, and the salient technologies that are being developed to mitigate this effect.

Ideal for upper-level undergraduate and first-year graduate students, as well as professionals in the fields of energy and environmental sciences and technology, Energy and the Environment: Scientific and Technological Principles, Second Edition, equips readers with the basic factual knowledge needed to develop solutions to these environmental problems.

New to this Edition

  • Updated data reflecting the profound changes in energy supply and demand and in technologies
  • A completely rewritten chapter on renewable energies including major technological advances of recent years
  • A new chapter on Thermochemistry, Fossil Fuel Combustion, Synfuels, and Hydrogen Economy
  • Expanded coverage of global warming and possible measures for mitigating this environmental threat

About the Author(s)

James A. Fay is Professor Emeritus of Mechanical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Dan S. Golomb is Professor Emeritus of Environmental Sciences at the University of Massachusetts at Lowell.

Previous Publication Date(s)

February 2002

Reviews

"In its particular niche this is the best book of which I am aware. I would like to compliment the authors for their concise and sure-handed discussion of a host of difficult topics."--Russ Houldin, University of Toronto

"The strength of this book may lie in the fact that it presents concise and accurate information with very well-organized chapters covering almost all aspects of energy and the environment. The chapters on topics such as fossil-fueled power plants and nuclear-fueled power plants as well as transportation, are well-written."--Chunbao (Charles) Xu, Lakehead University

Table of Contents

    Contents
    1 Energy and the Environment
    1.1 Introduction
    1.1.1 An Overview of this Text
    1.2 Energy
    1.2.1 Electric Power
    1.2.2 Transportation Energy
    1.2.3 Energy as a Commodity
    1.3 The Environment
    1.3.1 Managing Industrial Pollution
    Bibliography
    2 Global Energy Use and Supply
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Global Energy Consumption
    2.3 Global Carbon Emissions
    2.4 Global Energy Sources
    2.5 Global Electricity Consumption
    2.6 End-Use Energy Consumption in the United States
    2.6.1 Industrial Sector
    2.6.2 Residential Sector
    2.6.3 Commercial Sector
    2.6.4 Transportation Sector
    2.7 Global Energy Supply
    2.7.1 Coal Reserves
    2.7.2 Petroleum Reserves
    2.7.3 Unconventional Petroleum Resources
    2.7.4 Natural Gas Reserves
    2.7.5 Unconventional Gas Resources
    2.7.6 Summary of Fossil Reserves
    2.8 Conclusion
    Problems
    Bibliography
    3 Thermodynamic Principles of Energy Conversion
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 The Forms of Energy
    3.2.1 The Mechanical Energy of Macroscopic Bodies
    3.2.2 The Energy of Atoms and Molecules
    3.2.3 Chemical and Nuclear Energy
    3.2.4 Electric and Magnetic Energy
    3.2.5 Total Energy
    3.3 Work and Heat Interactions
    3.3.1 Work Interaction
    3.3.2 Heat Interaction
    3.4 The First Law of Thermodynamics
    3.5 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
    3.6 Thermodynamic Properties
    3.7 Steady Flow
    3.8 Heat Transfer and Heat Exchange
    3.9 Ideal Heat Engine Cycles
    3.9.1 The Carnot Cycle
    3.9.2 The Rankine Cycle
    3.9.3 The Otto Cycle
    3.9.4 The Brayton Cycle
    3.9.5 Combined Brayton and Rankine Cycles
    3.10 The Vapor Compression Cycle: Refrigeration and Heat Pumps
    3.11 Energy Processing: First and Second Law Constraints
    3.11.1 Fuel Heating Value
    3.11.2 Free Energy Change
    3.11.3 Separating Gases
    3.12 Fuel (Thermal) Efficiency
    3.13 Conclusion
    Problems
    Bibliography
    4 Thermodynamics of Fossil, Biomass, and Synthetic Fuels
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Fossil Fuels
    4.3 Combustion of Fossil Fuel
    4.3.1 Fuel Heating Value
    4.4 Biomass Fuels
    4.5 Synthetic Fuels
    4.5.1 Examples of Fossil Fuel Synthesis
    4.5.1.1 Coal to Gas
    4.5.2 Examples of Biochemical Synthesis
    4.6 Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Biomass
    4.7 Electrochemical Reactions
    4.7.1 Fuel Cells
    4.7.2 Practical Fuel Cell Systems
    4.8 The Hydrogen Economy
    4.8.1 Hydrogen Fuel for Vehicle Propulsion
    4.8.2 Synthetic Hydrogen from Fossil Fuels with Carbon Capture and Storage
    4.8.3 Hydrogen as Energy Storage for Intermittent Electric Power Plants
    4.8.4 Hydrogen as a Substitute for Pipeline Natural Gas
    4.9 Conclusion
    Problems
    Bibliography
    5 Electrical Energy Generation, Transmission, and Storage
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Electromechanical Power Transformation
    5.3 Electric Power Transmission
    5.3.1 AC/DC Conversion
    5.4 Energy Storage
    5.4.1 Electrostatic Energy Storage
    5.4.2 Magnetic Energy Storage
    5.4.3 Electrochemical Energy Storage
    5.4.3.1 Lead-Acid Storage Battery
    5.4.3.2 Lithium-Ion Storage Battery
    5.4.3.3 Other Storage Batteries
    5.4.4 Mechanical Energy Storage
    5.4.4.1 Pumped Hydropower
    5.4.4.2 Flywheel Energy Storage
    5.4.5 Properties of Energy Storage Systems
    5.5 Conclusion
    Problems
    Bibliography
    6 Fossil-Fueled Power Plants
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Fossil-Fueled Power Plant Components
    6.2.1 Fuel Storage and Preparation
    6.2.2 Burner
    6.2.3 Boiler
    6.2.4 Steam Turbine
    6.2.4.1 Impulse Turbine
    6.2.4.2 Reaction Turbine
    6.2.5 Gas Turbine
    6.2.6 Condenser
    6.2.7 Cooling Tower
    6.2.7.1 Wet Cooling Tower
    6.2.7.2 Dry Cooling Tower
    6.2.8 Generator
    6.2.9 Combustion Stoichiometry
    6.2.10 Emission Control
    6.2.10.1 Control of Products of Incomplete Combustion and Carbon Monoxide
    6.2.10.2 Control of Particles
    6.2.10.3 Sulfur Control
    6.2.10.4 Nitrogen Oxide Control
    6.2.10.5 Mercury Control
    6.2.10.6 Toxic Metals
    6.2.11 Waste Disposal
    6.3 Advanced Cycles
    6.3.1 Combined Cycle
    6.3.2 Coal Gasification Combined Cycle
    6.3.3 Cogeneration
    6.3.4 Fuel Cell
    6.4 Conclusion
    Problems
    Bibliography
    7 Nuclear-Fueled Power Plants
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Nuclear Energy
    7.2.1 Nuclear Energy from Fission
    7.3 Radioactivity
    7.3.1 Decay Rates and Half-Lives
    7.3.2 Units and Dosage
    7.3.2.1 Health Effects of Radiation
    7.3.2.2 Radiation Protection Standards
    7.4 Nuclear Reactors
    7.4.1 Boiling Water Reactor
    7.4.2 Pressurized Water Reactor
    7.4.3 Gas Cooled Reactor
    7.4.4 Breeder Reactor
    7.5 Nuclear Fuel Cycle
    7.5.1 Mining and Refining
    7.5.2 Gasification and Enrichment
    7.5.3 Spent Fuel Reprocessing
    7.5.4 Temporary Waste Storage
    7.5.5 Permanent Waste Storage
    7.6 Fusion
    7.6.1 Magnetic Confinement
    7.6.2 Laser Fusion
    7.7 Energy Evolvement in Nuclear Fission and Fusion Reactions
    7.8 Conclusion
    Problems
    Bibliography
    8 Renewable Energy
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Hydropower
    8.2.1 Environmental Effects
    8.3 Biomass Energy
    8.3.1 Photosynthesis
    8.3.2 Biofuels
    8.3.2.1 Bioethanol
    8.3.2.2 Biodiesel
    8.3.3 Wood as Biofuel
    8.3.4 Environmental Effects
    8.4 Geothermal Energy
    8.4.1 Environmental Effects
    8.5 Solar Energy
    8.5.1 Flat Plate Collector
    8.5.2 Focusing Collectors
    8.5.2.1 Solar Thermal Farms
    8.5.3 Photovoltaic Cells
    8.5.3.1 Photovoltaic Farms
    8.5.4 Environmental Effects
    8.6 Wind Power
    8.6.1 Aerodynamics of Wind Turbine Operation
    8.6.2 Mechanical and Electrical Components
    8.6.3 Wind Resources
    8.6.3.1 Capacity Factor
    8.6.3.2 Effectiveness
    8.6.3.3 Wind Variability and Predictability
    8.6.4 Economical Turbine Designs
    8.6.5 Wind Farms
    8.6.6 Integrating Wind Farms into the Electric Power Network
    8.6.6.1 Averaging An Array of Wind Farms
    8.6.7 Environmental Effects
    8.7 Tidal Power
    8.7.1 Tidal Current Power
    8.7.2 Environmental Effects
    8.8 Ocean Wave Power
    8.8.1 Ocean Wave Energy and Power
    8.8.2 Ocean Wave Power Systems
    8.8.3 Wave Power Farms
    8.8.4 Environmental Impacts
    8.9 Ocean Thermal Power
    8.10 Capital Cost of Renewable Electric Power
    8.11 Conclusion
    Problems
    Bibliography
    9 Automotive Transportation
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Internal Combustion Engines for Highway Vehicles
    9.2.1 Combustion in SI and CI engines
    9.3 Engine Power and Performance
    9.3.1 Engine Efficiency
    9.4 Vehicle Power and Performance
    9.4.1 Connecting the Engine to the Wheels
    9.5 Vehicle Fuel Efficiency
    9.5.1 U.S. Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Regulations and Test Cycles
    9.5.2 Improving Vehicle Fuel Economy
    9.5.2.1 Improving Vehicle Performance
    9.5.2.2 Improving Engine Performance
    9.6 Electric Drive Vehicles
    9.6.1 Vehicles Powered by Storage Batteries
    9.6.2 Hybrid Vehicles
    9.6.3 Fuel Cell Vehicles
    9.7 Vehicle Emissions
    9.7.1 U.S. Vehicle Emission Standards
    9.7.2 Reducing Vehicle Emissions
    9.7.2.1 Reducing Engine-Out Emissions
    9.7.2.2 Catalytic Converters for Exhaust Gas Treatment
    9.7.2.3 Evaporative Emissions
    9.7.2.4 Reducing CI Engine Emissions
    9.7.2.5 Fuel Quality and its Regulation
    9.8 Conclusion
    Problems
    Bibliography
    10 Environmental Effects of Fossil Fuel Use
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Air Pollution
    10.2.1 U.S. Emission Standards
    10.2.2 U.S. Ambient Standards
    10.2.3 Health and Environmental Effects of Fossil-Fuel-Related Air Pollutants
    10.2.4 Air Pollution Meteorology
    10.2.5 Air Quality Modeling
    10.2.5.1 Modeling of Steady-State Point Source
    10.2.5.2 Plume Rise
    10.2.5.3 Steady State Line Source
    10.2.5.4 Steady State Area Source
    10.2.6 Photo-oxidants
    10.2.6.1 Photo-oxidant Modeling
    10.2.7 Acid Deposition
    10.2.7.1 Acid Deposition Modeling
    10.2.8 Regional Haze and Visibility Impairment
    10.3 Water Pollution
    10.3.1 Acid Mine Drainage and Coal Washing
    10.3.3 Water Use and Thermal Pollution from Power Plants
    10.3.4 Atmospheric Deposition of Toxic Pollutants onto Surface Waters
    10.3.4.1 Toxic Metals
    10.3.4.2 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
    10.4 Land Pollution
    10.5 Conclusion
    Problems
    Bibliography
    11 GlobalWarming and Climate Change
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 What is the Greenhouse Effect?
    11.2.1 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation
    11.2.2 Sun-Earth-Space Radiative Equilibrium
    11.2.3 Modeling Global Warming
    11.2.4 Global Warming Potential
    11.2.5 Radiative Forcing





    11.2.6 Results of Global Warming Modeling
    11.2.7 Observed Trend of Global Warming
    11.3 Associated Effects of Global Warming
    11.3.1 Sea Level Rise.
    11.3.2 Water Vapor and Precipitation Changes
    11.3.3 Hurricanes and Typhoons
    11.3.4 Climate Changes
    11.4 Greenhouse Gas Emissions
    11.4.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions and the Carbon Cycle
    11.4.2 Methane
    11.4.3 Nitrous Oxide .
    11.4.4 Chlorofluorocarbons
    11.4.5 Ozone
    11.5 Conclusion.
    Bibliography
    Problems
    12 Mitigating GlobalWarming
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Controlling Halocarbon Emissions
    12.3 Controlling Nitrous Oxide Emissions
    12.4 Controlling Methane Emissions
    12.4.1 Controlling Methane Generated by Coal Mining
    12.4.2 Controlling Methane from Petroleum and Natural Gas Operations
    12.4.3 Controlling Landfill Methane
    12.5 Controlling Carbon Dioxide Emissions
    12.5.1 Controlling CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fueled Electric Power Plants
    12.5.1.1 Shift from Coal or Oil to Natural Gas Fuel
    12.5.1.2 Natural Gas Fired Combined Cycle Plants
    12.5.1.3 Capturing CO2 from the Flue Gas by Chemical Absorption
    12.5.1.4 Oxyfuel Combustion with CO2 Capture
    12.5.1.5 Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Plants with CO2 Capture
    12.5.1.6 Capturing CO2 after Gasification by Physical Absorption
    12.5.1.7 Capturing CO2 after Gasification by Membrane Separation
    12.6 Thermal Efficiency and Cost of Controlling CO2 Emissions from Power Plants
    12.7 CO2 Sequestration
    12.7.1 Sequestration in Oil and Gas Reservoirs
    12.7.2 Sequestration in Coal Seams
    12.7.3 Sequestration in Deep Sedimentary Basins
    12.7.4 Sequestration in the Deep Ocean
    12.7.5 CO2 Removal from the Atmosphere
    12.7.5.1 Afforestation
    12.7.5.2 Ocean Fertilization
    12.7.5.3 Mineral Sequestration
    12.7.5.4 CO2 Utilization
    12.8 Conclusion
    Problems
    Bibliography
    13 Concluding Remarks
    13.1 Energy Resources
    13.2 Regulating the Environmental Effects of Energy Use
    13.3 Global Climate Change
    13.3.1 Coping with Climate Change
    13.4 Conclusion