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Converging Media 2013-2014 Update

A New Introduction To Mass Communication

Third Edition

John V. Pavlik and Shawn McIntosh

Publication Date - January 2013

ISBN: 9780199968466

544 pages
8-1/2 x 11 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $92.95

Industry. Culture. Technology. It's time they came together.



>The role of the media in the 2012 election process and results

>Guide to how the content in Converging Media relates to each of the twelve core values and competencies of the Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communications (ACEJMC). Visit us online at www.oup.com/us/pavlik for more information on how we provide this content.

>Up-to-date coverage of topics in the mass media such as the Facebook IPO

>Six new chapter-opening vignettes to foster critical thinking:
** The Huffington Post's Pulitzer Prize win
** Digital piracy including the controversy with SOPA and PIPA
** eBook pricing
** China's internet censorship
** Impact of Super PACs on elections
** Critics' reactions to personalized online news sites, such as Paper.li

About the Author(s)

John V. Pavlik is Professor in the Department of Journalism and Media Studies at the School of Communication and Information and Director of the Journalism Research Institute at Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey.

Shawn McIntosh is a lecturer in strategic communications at Columbia University's School of Continuing Education.

Previous Publication Date(s)

January 2013

Table of Contents

    About the Authors
    Part 1: The Changing Media Landscape
    Chapter 1: Mass Communication and its Digital Transformation
    Telephony: Case Study in Convergence
    Three Types of Convergence
    -Technological Convergence
    -Economic Convergence
    -Cultural Convergence
    Implications of Convergence
    -Media Organization Changes
    -Media Type Changes
    -Media Content Changes
    -Media Use Changes
    -Media Distribution Changes
    -Media Audience Changes
    -Media Profession Changes
    -Attitude and Value Changes
    Mass Communication in the Digital Age
    -Interpersonal Communication
    -Mass Communication
    -Mass Communication and Convergence
    Functions of Mass Communication
    -Cultural Transmission
    Theories of Communication
    -Transmission Models
    -Critical Theory and Cultural Studies
    Television: The Future of Convergence
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Discussion Questions
    Further Reading
    Media Quiz: The Nature of "Intermass" Communication
    Convergence Context: User-Generated Content: Creativity or Piracy?
    Convergence Culture: Mapping Sex Offenders
    International Perspectives: Crying in a BMW
    Chapter 2: Media Literacy in the Digital Age
    Education and Media
    What is Media Literacy?
    Historical Development of Media
    -Regulatory Factors
    -Sociocultural Factors
    -Technological Factors
    -Economic Factors
    Media Grammar
    -Print Media
    -Radio and Recorded Music
    -Film and Television
    Commercial Forces on Media Content
    -Profit and Nonprofit Media
    -Commercial Forces in Public Service Media
    -Product Placement and Corporate Sponsorship
    -Concentration of Media Ownership
    Historical Development of Digital Media
    Discussing Digital Media: Networks Are Key
    The World of Digital Media
    -Digital Print
    --Digital Books
    --Digital Newspapers and Magazines
    -Digital Audio
    -Digital Visual Media
    Digital Media Grammar
    Commercial Forces on Digital Media Content
    -The Open-Source Movement
    -Revenue Models for Digital Media
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Discussion Questions
    Further Reading
    Media Quiz Answers
    Media Quiz: How Media Literate Are You?
    Ethics in Media: The Filter Bubble
    Convergence Culture: Text Messaging and the Thumb Tribe
    International Perspectives: Mobile Telephony in the Developing World
    Convergence Context: Wikipedia in Our Cites: The Trouble with Collaborative Knowledge
    Part 2: Mass Communication Formats
    Chapter 3: Print Media: Books, Newspapers, and Magazines
    Functions of Print Media
    -Transmission of Culture
    -Diffusion of Ideas and Knowledge
    Distinctive Functions of Books
    History of Books to Today
    -Monastic Scribes
    -Johannes Gutenberg
    -Beginnings of Mass Communication and Mass Literacy
    -Cheaper and Smaller Books
    --Dime Novels
    --Mass-Market Paperbacks
    Current Book Industry Issues
    Sales and Readership of Books
    Outlook for Books
    Distinctive Functions of Newspapers
    -Local Newspapers
    -National Newspapers
    History of Newspapers to Today
    -The Commercial Press and Partisan Press
    -Colonial Readership and Finances
    -The Golden Age of Newspapers
    Current Newspaper Industry Issues
    -Newspaper Chains
    --Benefits of Chains
    --Problems with Chains
    Leading Newspaper Chains
    Declining Number of Daily Newspapers
    Sales and Readership of Newspapers
    -Circulation and Readership
    Outlook for Newspapers
    Distinctive Functions of Magazines
    History of Magazines to Today
    Current Magazine Industry Issues
    Sales and Readership of Magazines
    Outlook for Magazines
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Discussion Questions
    Further Reading
    Media Quiz: Print Media
    International Perspectives: Education for All 2015
    Timeline: History (and Pre-History) of Newspapers
    Convergence Culture: Freesheets: Riding the Rails of Newspapers' Future?
    Convergence Context: Will Printing on Dead Trees Ever Die?
    Chapter 4: Audio Media: Music Recordings, Radio
    The Recording Industry
    Distinctive Functions of the Recorded-Music Industry
    History of Recorded Music
    The Recorded-Music Industry Today
    Recording-Industry Business Model
    -Pricing Structure
    Outlook for the Recording Industry
    -Digital Rights Management and Illegal File Sharing
    -New Business Models Emerging
    What Is Broadcasting?
    Distinctive Functions of Radio
    History of Radio
    -Wireless Telegraphy
    -Exploring Radio's Early Potential
    -Voice Transmission
    -Radio Before, During, and After WWI
    -Widespread Public Adoption of Radio
    -FM Radio, Edwin Howard Armstrong, and David Sarnoff
    -Creating a Viable Business Model for Radio
    -The Rise of Radio Networks
    -Consolidation in Radio Station Ownership
    The Radio Industry Today
    -Radio Station Programming
    Outlook for the Radio Industry
    -Satellite Radio
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Discussion Questions
    Further Readings
    Media Quiz Answers
    Media Quiz: The Revolution Will Not Be Televised (It Will Be Listened To)
    Convergence Context: The Alphabet Soup of Spectrum Allocation
    Timeline: Milestones in Early Radio-Technology Development
    Ethics in Media: On Call...And On the Radio
    Convergence Culture: NPR and PRI: America's Public Radio Networks
    International Perspectives: Trusting in the Power of the Airwaves
    Chapter 5: Visual Media: Movies and Television
    -History of Photography
    -Seeing Beyond the Human Eye
    -Photographic Industry Today
    -The Functions of the Movie Industry
    History of the Movie Industry
    -Silent Era: New Medium, New Technologies, New Storytelling
    --George Méliès and D.W. Griffith
    --F.W. Murnau and Sergei Eisenstein
    -Sound and Color Come to Movies
    -The Birth of Hollywood
    --Hollywood Star System
    Movie Industry Today
    Marketing and Distribution for Movies
    Movie Industry Business Model
    Outlook for Movie Industry
    -Functions of Television
    History of Television Industry
    -Seeing the Light: The First Television Systems
    -Modern Television Takes Shape
    Digital Television: Preparing the Way for Convergence
    -The Rise of Flat-Panel Displays
    Television Distribution
    -Broadcast TV
    -Cable TV
    -Satellite TV
    Television Industry Today
    -Cable System Structure
    -Satellite vs. Cable
    Television Industry Business Model
    -Cable and Satellite Services and Programming: Overcoming Audience Fragmentation
    Outlook for Television Industry
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Discussion Questions
    Further Reading
    Media Quiz Answers
    Media Quiz: Eye-Q Test
    Timeline: Development of Photography
    Ethics in Media: Photojournalist's Dilemma: Sudan, Starvation, and Suicide
    Timeline: Selected Milestones in Early Motion Pictures
    Convergence Context: 3-D Movies: What will be the impact?
    Convergence Culture: A Brief History of Interactive TV
    Part 3: How Digital Media Are Changing Our World
    Chapter 6: Information Overload, Usability, and Interactive Media
    Characteristics of Storage, Representation, and Retrieval
    Nonelectronic Media Versus Electronic Media
    Social and Political Impact of Storing Information
    -Stone Tablets to Papyrus
    -Vellum to Paper
    -The Kitchen Debate to Watergate
    -Rodney King to the Oval Office
    -Email to Facebook
    Managing Information
    -Development of Digital Storage Devices
    -Compression of Digital Audio and Video
    -The Role of Search Engines
    -Social and Political Impact of Information Overload
    The Importance of User Interface
    Current Problems with User Interface
    Development of the Digital User Interface
    -The Television Screen
    -Television and Remote Control
    -The Computer Interface
    -The Creation of Intuitive Interfaces
    --Computer Mouse
    --Touch-Sensitive Screens
    --Natural Input Methods
    -Graphical User Interface
    The Desktop Metaphor
    Implications of User Interface for Mass Communication
    Interactive Media
    Interactivity Defined
    The Importance of Interactive Media
    Ethics of Interactive Media
    -Free Speech For Everyone?
    -Interactive Advertising
    -Search Engine Keywords
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Discussion Questions
    Further Reading
    Media Quiz Answers
    Media Quiz: Searching for Knowledge
    Timeline: Development of Electronic Recording Devices
    Timeline: Development of Digital Storage Media
    Convergence Context: Do's and Don'ts of Evaluating Information Online
    International Perspectives: The Internet of Babel
    Convergence Culture: Douglas Englebart: Visionary of Computing's Future
    Chapter 7: Networks and Digital Distribution
    Historical Influences on Modern Networks
    -Government and Private Industry
    -Evolving Technology: From the Telegraph to Fiber Optics
    -Radio and Television
    -Fiber Optics
    Historical Development of the Internet and World Wide Web
    -Creating an Internet Protocol
    -Creating the World Wide Web
    -Creating Graphical Web Browsers
    The Internet Today
    -Telephone and Cable Company Broadband Services
    -Broadband Changing Consumer Patterns
    --Social Effects of Broadband
    The Nature of Networks: Key Concepts
    -Sarnoff's Law
    -Metcalfe's Law
    -Reed's Law
    Computer Networks: Key Concepts
    -Peer-to-Peer Model
    -Client/Server Model
    -Wireless Networks
    -Quality of Service
    Characteristics of Digital Distribution
    -Distributing Bits
    -Low Distribution Costs
    -Perfect Infinite Copies
    -Instantaneous Distribution
    -New Distribution Dynamics
    -The Audience as Distributor
    File-Sharing Services
    -Centralized File Sharing: The Case of Napster
    -Decentralized File Sharing
    -Streaming File Sharing: The Next Wave
    New Distribution Technologies, New Legal, Ethical, and Social Issues
    -Legal Issues
    -Ethical Issues
    -Social Issues
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Discussion Questions
    Further Reading
    Media Quiz Answers
    Media Quiz: Network Knowledge
    Media Pioneers: Reuters and the Creation of News Wire Services
    International Perspectives: Al-Jazeera: CNN of the Middle East?
    Timeline: Milestones in the Development of the Internet
    Convergence Context: The Great Network Neutrality Debate
    Convergence Culture: SETI@Home: Is There Anybody Out There?
    Chapter 8: Social Media and Web 2.0
    Defining Social Media
    -Differences with Traditional Media
    What Is "Social" About Social Media?
    Types of Social Media
    -Discussion Boards and Web Forums
    -Chat Rooms
    -Social-networking Sites
    Why Social Networks Matter
    Collaborative Media Work
    -Changing Audiences: From Consumers to "Producers"
    -Reputation, Ratings, and Trust
    Ethical and Legal Issues with Social Media
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Discussion Questions
    Further Reading
    Media Quiz Answer
    Media Quiz: How Connected Are You?
    International Perspectives: Lily Allen: MySpace Star Reaches the Stars
    Convergence Culture: Are We Really Separated by Six Degrees?
    Convergence Context: Web 3.0: The Semantic Web
    Part 4: Media Perspectives
    Chapter 9: Journalism: From Information to Participation
    What Is News?
    The Historical Development of Journalism
    -Objectivity and the Associated Press
    -Pulitzer and Hearst: The Circulation Wars, Sensationalism, and Standards
    --Joseph Pulitzer
    --William Randolph Hearst
    -The Muckrakers
    -The Rise of Electronic Journalism
    --Murrow and News in TV's Golden Age
    --Changes in Television News
    -Foundations of Journalism
    -The Hutchins Commission and A Free and Responsible Press
    -Separation of Editorial and Business Operations
    -Fairness and Balance in News Coverage
    -Framing the News
    -Expert Sources
    From Event to Public Eye: How News Is Created
    -Gathering the News
    -Producing the News
    -Distributing the News
    Types of Journalism
    -Alternative Journalism
    -Public Journalism
    -Citizen Journalism
    -An International Perspective
    Journalism in the Digital World
    -The 24/7 News Cycle
    -Nontraditional News Sources
    -Online Users' Media Habits
    -Contextualization of News
    -Convergent Journalism
    The Business of Journalism
    -Diversity in the Newsroom
    Careers in Journalism
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Discussion Questions
    Further Reading
    Media Quiz Answers
    Media Quiz: A Nose for News
    Media Pioneers: Mary Shadd Cary and the Role of Minority Newspapers
    International Perspectives: Covering Islam
    Convergence Culture: Platypus Journalism: Journalism's Future, or Evolutionary Dead End?
    Ethics In Media: Do the Ends Justify the Means?
    Convergence Context: ProPublica: Reviving Investigative Journalism
    Chapter 10: Entertainment
    Functions of Entertainment
    The Historical Development of Entertainment
    Entertainment Media
    -Early Days: Programming and Genre Influences
    -Pushing the Programming Envelope
    -The MTV Generation and the Rise of Cable
    -Cable Comes of Age
    -Public Service Broadcasting: Public Service in a Commercial World
    -Types of Programming
    --Changes in Media, Changes in Programming
    --Filling the Days
    --Filling the Nights
    --Reality Shows
    -Hollywood's Legendary Movie Moguls
    --The Warner Brothers
    --Walt Disney
    --Samuel Goldwyn
    --Marcus Loew: Mogul of the East
    --Louis B. Mayer
    - Film Genres
    -The Director as Auteur
    -Technological Influences on Movie Genres
    -Other Entertainment Sources for Movies
    -DVDs and Netflix
    Video Games
    -The Rise of Social Games
    -From Tin Pan Alley to Hollywood
    -Roots of Rock and Roll
    -Redefining Rock
    -Music and MTV
    Books and Magazines
    Entertainment and Law
    -The Censorship of Comics
    -The Hays Code
    The Business of Entertainment
    -Careers in Entertainment
    -Salaries in Entertainment
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Discussion Questions
    Further Reading
    Media Quiz: Are You an Entertainment Junkie?
    International Perspectives: Copyright and International Piracy in the Digital Era
    Convergence Culture: The Quiz Show That Became a Town
    Convergence Context: Is Playing Video Games Bad for You?
    Ethics in Media: Jersey Shore and the G Word
    Chapter 11: Advertising and Public Relations: The Power of Persuasion
    Strategic Communications
    -Persuasive Communications
    -The Role of Media in Persuasion
    -The Historical Development of Advertising
    --Greater Prominence of Advertising
    --Development of the Advertising Agency
    --Growth of Commercial Television
    --Commercialization of the Internet
    -The Rise of Branding
    -Selling Products, Selling Ideas
    -Advertising Channels
    --Print Media
    --Electronic Media
    --Direct Mail
    -Advertising in a Digital World
    --Email Marketing
    --Banner Ads
    --Pop-Ups, Interstitials, Superstitials, and Video
    --Classifieds and Auction Sites
    --Search Engine Ads
    --Behavioral Advertising
    --Viral Marketing
    -The Advertising Business
    -Advertising Agencies
    Public Relations
    -The Historical Development of Public Relations
    -Trends in the Development of Public Relations
    -PR and Media Relations
    --Pseudo Events
    --Distributing News to the Media in the Digital Age
    --Finding Sources Online
    -PR Firms and the PR Industry
    Changing Trends in Advertising and PR
    -Careers in Advertising and PR
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Discussion Questions
    Further Reading
    Media Quiz Answers
    Media Quiz: The Dynamics of Persuasion
    Convergence Context: Me 2.0: The Guide to Branding Yourself
    Convergence Culture: Going Viral
    International Perspectives: Finding the Right Formula for Advertising Regulations
    Ethics in Media: Fooling Most of the People Most of the TimeDigitally
    Part 5: Media and Society
    Chapter 12: Media Ethics
    Ethics, Morals, and Laws
    Major Systems of Ethical Reasoning
    -Character, or Virtue Ethics
    --The Golden Rule
    --The Golden Mean
    --The Categorical Imperative
    -Discourse Ethics
    --Social Justice
    -Relationships, or Dialogical Ethics
    --Ethics of Care
    -Moral Relativism
    Issues in Ethical Decision-Making
    -The Role of Commercialism in Media Ethics
    -Media Types Influencing Content
    -New Worlds-Or Cultural Imperialism?
    Ethics in Journalism
    -Privacy Rights vs. the Public's Right to Know
    -Going Undercover
    -Victimizing the Victims
    -Society of Professional Journalists Code of Ethics
    Ethics in Advertising
    -Deceptive Advertising
    -Conflicts of Interest in Advertising
    -Advertising Codes of Ethics
    Ethics in PR
    -Conflicts of Interest in PR
    -Public Relations Codes of Ethics
    Ethics in Entertainment
    -Stereotypes in Entertainment
    -Sex and Violence
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Discussion Questions
    Further Reading
    Media Quiz: How Moral Are You?
    Convergence Context: Selling a War
    Chapter 13: Communication Law and Regulation in the Digital Age
    The Legal Framework
    The Foundations of Freedom of Expression
    -National Security
    --Clear and Present Danger
    --Prior Restraint
    --New York Times v. Sullivan (1964)
    --Protecting Journalists Against Libel
    --Shield Laws
    --Indecent Content
    --Criticism, Ridicule, or Humor
    The Evolution of Regulating Electronic Media
    -Early Days and the Radio Act of 1912 (1911-1926)
    -Increasing Regulation and the Federal Radio Commission (1927-1933)
    -The Communications Act and Spectrum Scarcity (1934-1995)
    -The Telecommunications Act and Its Effects (1996-present)
    -Electronic Media Regulation Internationally
    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
    -Regulating Radio and Television
    -Universal Service
    -The FCC, Station ID, and License Renewal
    -FCC Limits on Stations
    -Spectrum Auction
    The Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
    -Commercial Speech
    --Tobacco and Alcohol Advertising
    --Unclear Regulatory Boundaries
    -Political Speech
    --Equal-Time Rule
    --Fairness Doctrine
    Children's Programming Protections
    -The Children's Television Act
    -Violent and Sexual Programming: The V-Chip
    Intellectual Property Rights
    -Fair Use
    Legal Issues in the Digital World
    -Digital Rights Management
    -Content Rights and Responsibilities
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Discussion Questions
    Further Reading
    Media Quiz Answers
    Media Quiz: Legal Limits
    Convergence Culture: (Low) Power to the People
    International Perspectives: The Rise and Fall of Russian Media
    Convergence Context: Jailed as a Journalist
    Chapter 14: Media Theory and Research: From Writing to Text Messaging
    The Role of Theory and Research
    Early Concerns of Media Effects
    What Makes Mediated Communication Different
    Mass Society, Mass Communication
    Media-Effects Research
    -Propaganda and the Magic Bullet
    -Payne Fund
    -Radio's Wider Impact
    -Television and Violence
    -Limited Effects
    --Cultivation Analysis
    --Spiral of Silence
    --Third-Person Effect
    -Criticisms of Media Effects Research
    Understanding the Audience
    -Audiences Creating Meaning
    --Uses and Gratifications
    --Reception Analysis
    -Audiences as Consumers, Users, or Produsers?
    Cultural Studies
    -Ideology and the Culture Industry
    -Criticisms of Cultural Studies
    Socio-Historical Frameworks
    -Information Society
    -Political Economy
    -Media Ecology
    Media Research: What Type of Science Is It?
    -Quantitative Research
    -Qualitative Research
    -Qualitative and Quantitative Research Working Together
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Discussion Questions
    Further Reading
    Media Quiz Answers
    Media Quiz: Bringing Out Your Inner Researcher
    Convergence Culture: Advertising's Potential Negative Effects on Women-And Men
    Convergence Context: It's a Mean, Mean World--At Least on TV
    International Perspectives: Theories Old, Theories New, Theories Borrowed. . .
    Chapter 15: Mass Communication and Politics in the Digital Age
    Four Theories of International Mass Communication
    -The Authoritarian Theory
    -The Libertarian Theory
    -The Social Responsibility Theory
    -The Soviet Theory
    The Public, the Public Sphere, and Public Opinion
    Political Issues with Media
    -Media in Developing Countries
    -The Digital Divide
    Role of Media in Political Elections
    -Sound Bites and Horse Races
    -The Changing Tone of Television Political Coverage
    -Opinion Polls
    -Political Advertising
    --The Impact of Negative Advertising
    --Negative Advertising Effectiveness
    --Political Debates
    The Internet and Political Campaigns
    -The Role of YouTube
    -Changing Rules for Politicians
    Online Media and Political Communications
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Discussion Questions
    Further Reading
    Media Quiz Answers
    Media Quiz: Playing Politics
    International Perspectives: Searching for Truth: Self-Censorship in China
    Convergence Context: Sound Bite Shakespeare
    Ethics in Media: Can Imagery Lead to Action?
    Convergence Culture: Image Is Everything

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