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Cover

Confronting Gangs

Crime and Community

Third Edition

G. David Curry, Scott H. Decker, and David C. Pyrooz

Publication Date - February 2013

ISBN: 9780199891917

256 pages
Paperback
6-1/8 x 9-1/4 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $49.95

A balanced look at the causes and consequences of gang life

Description

The most comprehensive and current textbook on gang research, gang policy, and gang responses, Confronting Gangs: Crime and Community, Third Edition, offers a full and unbiased assessment of the characteristics of gang members and gang behavior.


DISTINCTIVE FEATURES

Strong focus on the community contexts that contribute to gang activity

Quotes from real-life gang members provide students with a realistic portrait of gang life

New to this Edition

  • New chapters on criminological theory (Ch. 2), gang structure (Ch. 3), gang membership throughout the life course (Ch. 4), and gangs across the world (Ch. 7)
  • Completely rewritten chapters on the impact of gang membership on crime (Ch. 5) and the relationship between gangs and the juvenile and criminal justice system (Ch. 9)
  • Expanded coverage of the Spergel model, gang response strategies, female gangs, and more

About the Author(s)

G. David Curry is Professor Emeritus of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Missouri-St. Louis.

Scott H. Decker is Foundation Professor and Director of the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Arizona State University.

David C. Pyrooz is Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice at Sam Houston State University.

Previous Publication Date(s)

February 2013
June 2002
January 1998

Reviews

"A great reader textbook that should be included in the repertoire of gang literature and theory. It provides excellent references for further research into gang phenomena." --Sharlette A. Kellum, Texas Southern University

"Filled with very rich, in-depth interviews and descriptions of gang life." --Shihlung Huang, California State University, Sacramento

Table of Contents

    Acknowledgements
    Preface
    CHAPTER 1. WHAT IS A GANG AND WHY DOES IT MATTER?
    Defining a Gang
    Defining Gangs and Gang Members
    Counting Gangs, Gang Members, and Gang Crimes
    Walter Miller, The National Youth Gang Survey (1974-75)
    Walter Miller, The National Youth Gang Survey (1974-82)
    Needle and Stapleton, Police Handling of Youth Gangs (1983)
    Spergel and Curry, The National Youth Gang Suppression and Intervention Program (1988)
    Curry, Ball, and Fox, The National Assessment of Law Enforcement Anti-Gang Information Resources (1992)
    Curry, Ball, and Decker, The NIJ Extended National Assessment Survey (1994)
    Malcolm Klein, The Study of Gang Problem Cities (pre-1990-95)
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's National Youth Gang Survey (1995-Present)
    History and Trends in Gangs and Gang Behaviors
    Summary of Key Points
    Demographic Correlates of Gang Involvement
    Age
    Gender
    Race and Ethnicity
    Socioeconomic Status
    Region and Urban Residence
    How Does the National Survey Data Compare to Police Data?
    Summary
    CHAPTER 2. EXPLAINING GANGS AND GANG MEMBERSHIP
    Why Do Some Places Have Gang Problems and Others Do Not?
    Macro-Level Theories
    Structural Control
    Structural Adaptation
    Macro-Level Evidence
    Gang Violence Across Places
    Gangs and Gang Membership Across Places
    Why Do Some People End Up in Gangs and Others Do Not?
    Micro-Level Theories
    Criminal Propensity Theory
    Social Bond Theory
    General Strain Theory
    Social Learning Theory
    Gang Membership Trait Theory
    Integrated Gang Membership Theories
    Micro-Level Evidence
    Major Findings
    Summary
    CHAPTER 3. FROM PLAY GROUPS TO AL-QAEDA: HOW ARE GANGS STRUCTURED?
    Gangs and Organization
    Gang Typologies and Gang Member Behavior
    Organizational Features of Gangs
    Gang Leaders
    Gang Rules
    Gang Roles
    Gang Meetings
    Gang Money
    Gangs in Relation to Other Criminal Groups
    Gangs and Terrorist Groups
    Transnational Organized Crime Groups and Their Activities
    Comparing Criminal Groups
    Summary
    CHAPTER 4. GANG MEMBERSHIP IN THE LIFE COURSE
    Key Life-Course Concepts for Understanding Gang Membership
    Joining the Gang
    Why Do Adolescents Join Gangs?
    How Do Adolescents Join Gangs?
    Life in the Gang
    Are All Gang Members Equally Involved in Gangs?
    How Long Do Adolescents Remain in Gangs?
    Leaving the Gang
    Why Do Gang Members Leave the Gang?
    How Do Gang Members Leave the Gang?
    Summary
    CHAPTER 5. THE LINK BETWEEN GANGS AND CRIME: WHY IS "GANG" SYNONYMOUS WITH CRIME?
    Models of Gang Membership, Criminal Behavior, and Victimization
    Theory
    Evidence
    What Types of Crime Do Gang Members Commit?
    Drug Use
    Drug Dealing
    Gun Ownership and Gun Carrying
    Serious Violence
    Violence, Victimization, and Group Process
    What Is Group Process? And How Does It Apply to Gangs?
    Group Process and the Cycle of Gang Violence
    Coping with Gang Violence
    Summary
    CHAPTER 6. GIRLS, WOMEN, AND GANGS: DOES GANG MEMBERSHIP DIFFER FOR FEMALES?
    The Scope of Female Gang Involvement
    Perspectives on Females and Gangs: Liberated, Exploited, or Marginalized?
    The Marginalization Hypothesis: Frederic Thrasher and Female Invisibility
    The Liberation Hypothesis: Anne Campbell and Female Autonomy
    The Social Injury Hypothesis: Joan Moore and Female Exploitation
    So Where Do the Molls Stand?
    Girls in the Gang
    Pathways to Gang Membership
    The Serious Consequences of Life in the Gang
    Leaving the Gang
    Summary
    CHAPTER 7. GANG MEMBERS, GANGS, AND GANG CRIME AROUND THE WORLD
    Defining Gangs in a Global Context
    The Global Scope of Gang Activity
    Canada
    Europe
    Gangs in Great Britain
    Gangs in Scandinavia
    European Summary
    Latin America and the Caribbean
    Gangs in Mexico
    Gangs in Trinidad and Tobago
    Africa, the Asia Pacific Region, and Elsewhere
    Gangs in Africa
    Gangs in Asia
    Gangs in Israel and Russia
    Gangs in Australia
    Summary
    CHAPTER 8. GANGS AND SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES
    Traditional Social Institutions
    Family
    Schools
    Labor Market
    Politics
    Emerging Social Institutions
    The Internet
    The Gang
    Summary
    CHAPTER 9. GANGS AND THE JUVENILE AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEMS
    Addressing Gangs in Street Settings
    The Police
    Police Gang Units
    Gang Databases
    Civil Gang Injunctions
    Specialized Gang Prosecution
    Anti-Gang Legislation
    Specialized Gang Probation and Parole
    Addressing Gangs in Incarcerated Settings
    Gang Members and Jails
    Gangs and Prison
    Structure and Organization
    Prison Gang Types
    Prison Gangs and Offending Behind Bars
    Correctional Responses to Prison Gangs
    Gang Members, Reentry, and Recidivism
    Comprehensive Criminal Justice-Based Gang Interventions
    The Office of Community Oriented Policing Anti-Gang Initiative, 1996
    Boston Ceasefire
    Massachusetts Shannon Grant Program
    Summary
    CHAPTER 10. RESPONDING TO GANGS: COMPREHENSIVE PROGRAMS AND A LOOK TO THE FUTURE
    Categories of Response Strategies
    Community Organization
    The Chicago Area Project
    Mobilization for Youth, New York City
    Crisis Intervention Network, Philadelphia
    Social Intervention
    Midcity Project, Boston
    Chicago Youth Development Project
    The Group Guidance Project and the Ladino Hills Program, Los Angeles
    Opportunities Provision
    Homeboy Industries (HBI)
    Los Angeles Gang Reduction Youth Development (GRYD)
    Suppression
    Organizational Development and Change
    Gang Crime Prevention Center, Illinois
    The Legacy of Irving Spergel and The Comprehensive Gang Strategy
    The Comprehensive Anti-Gang Initiative (CAGI)
    Prevention
    Gang Resistance Education and Training Program
    Continuing Issues in Responding to Gangs
    Delinquency Programs or Gang Programs?
    National Versus Local Responses
    Denial
    Definitional Issues
    Linking Causes and Responses
    Evaluation
    The Role of Gang Members in Responding to Gang Crime Problems
    Variations in Gang Crime Problems
    Continually Evaluate and Improve Evaluation Itself
    Link Response to Theory
    What Is the Future of Gangs?
    Summary

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