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Cover

City Lights

Urban-Suburban Life in the Global Society

Third Edition

E. Barbara Phillips

Publication Date - November 2009

ISBN: 9780195325034

752 pages
Paperback
7-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $96.95

The most interdisciplinary urban studies book on the market

Description

Now in its third edition, City Lights: Urban-Suburban Life in the Global Society is the most interdisciplinary urban studies book on the market. It skillfully blends social science perspectives with insights from the visual arts and humanities to provide a comprehensive introduction to cities, suburbs, and post-suburban areas and how they work. Motivating students to develop their own perspectives on the issues, author E. Barbara Phillips provides an extended discussion of "doing social science," systematically showing how scholarly controversy and public debates over urban-suburban policy are rooted in deep-seated differences: in ideologies, research methods, theoretical orientations, academic disciplines, and/or levels of analysis.

Featuring a unique combination of serious scholarship and an accessible, engaging writing style, City Lights, Third Edition, is ideal for courses in urban sociology, urban studies, urban growth and development, urban theory, and urban history. It incorporates many helpful pedagogical features, including almost 200 photographs and illustrations, real-life case studies, excerpts from classic works, key terms, and suggestions for further learning. In addition, end-of-chapter projects encourage students to apply what they have learned by participating in research, activism, or other civic pursuits in their own communities.

Thoroughly revised and updated, the third edition features

* A focus on the U.S. city but also a global emphasis throughout, with in-depth profiles of such cities as Kyoto, Cordóba, Shanghai, Mumbai, and Mexico City; numerous global-local links; and a new chapter (5) on global urbanization and the urban system
* Updated statistical data
* Detailed coverage of the Internet's influence on personal, political, and economic relations
* Discussions of numerous new topics including the impact of terrorism on cities, new immigrants in the U.S. and elsewhere, gated communities, building "green," and the "New Urbanism" in the U.S
* Analyses of recent political, social, and economic changes--including economic downturns--and their effects on urbanites and suburbanites in the U.S. and worldwide

Previous Publication Date(s)

March 1996
March 1981

Reviews

"City Lights is the definitive interdisciplinary urban studies text. There's nothing else like it. All urban studies texts promise an interdisciplinary perspective; Phillips, alone, delivers. It's an impressive work--engaging, comprehensive, rigorous, charming, insightful, logical, creative, and committed to a passionate embrace of the very best things about cities and urban life."--Elvin K. Wyly, University of British Columbia

"City Lights remains the best introductory text in the field of urban studies. The book has both the appeal necessary for undergraduates and the scholarly depth necessary for graduate students. I much prefer the consistent focus it offers to the numerous anthologies on the market. It is balanced and fair, and Dr. Phillips also shows a keen sense of humor in her text, photos, and cartoons."--Harvey K. Newman, Georgia State University

"Above all, I value City Lights for the breadth of learning that it offers students. Phillips draws across the humanities and social sciences, uses both quantitative and qualitative evidence, and frames practical problems in a theoretical context."--Anthony Filipovitch, Minnesota State University, Mankato

Table of Contents

    Chapters 4-20 end with "ANOTHER LOOK" sections
    Acknowledgments
    Introduction
    PART I. AN INVITATION TO THE CITY
    CHAPTER 1. THE KNOWING EYE AND EAR
    Two Paths to Understanding the City
    "Acquaintance with" and "Knowledge about" Metropolitan Life
    Rethinking the Two Paths
    Understanding Chicago in its Heyday, 1890s-1920s
    Using Social Science and Literature as Paths to Knowledge
    Labor Radicalism, Industrial Progress, and Social Reform
    Urban Researchers and Writers: Convergent Goals
    The City Beautiful
    Chicago: Microcosm of the New Industrial Order
    CHAPTER 2. THINKING ABOUT CITIES
    What You See Depends on How You Look at It
    Different Modes of Understanding
    Academic and Occupational Perspectives
    Even Road Maps Contain a Point of View
    Expanding Our Vision of the City
    Fragmentation of the Social Sciences
    Ways of Expanding Our Vision
    Urban Studies
    Disciplinary Perspectives: The Examples of Slums and Megaslums
    Economics
    Geography
    Sociology
    Political Science
    Anthropology
    History
    Psychology, Social Psychology, and Social Psychiatry
    Public Administration
    City Planning and Urban Design
    Communications and Information Technology
    Environmental Studies
    Literature and the Arts
    Making Some Connections
    CHAPTER 3. POSING THE QUESTIONS
    Doing Science
    Reasoning, Deductive and Inductive
    Systematic Analysis
    Facts, Hypotheses, and Value Judgments
    Why Social Scientists Disagree
    Theoretical Orientations
    Disciplinary Perspectives
    Research Methods
    Levels of Analysis
    Ideologies and Values
    Subtle Influences on Researchers
    Attitudes Toward Solving "Social Problems"
    What Questions to Ask
    PART II. POLIS, METROPOLIS, MEGALOPOLIS
    CHAPTER 4. FROM URBAN SPECKS TO GLOBAL CITIES
    The First Cities
    Digging into Urban History
    What Is a City?
    The First Urban Settlements: An Overview
    The Childe Thesis: The Urban Revolution in Mesopotamia
    Counterviews on the Origin of Cities: Trade, the Sacred, and the Spirit of the People
    An Emerging Theory of Early City Making
    Trying to Classify Cities
    Preindustrial versus Industrial Cities (Sjoberg)
    A Sampler of Cities
    The Glory That Was Greece
    Kyoto: "The Most Japanese of Japanese Cities"
    From Rome to Medieval European Cities
    Muslim Córdoba, Spain: "The Ornament of the World"
    Mexico City: Imperial City, Colonial City, Megalopolis
    Manchester, England: Symbol of the New Industrial City
    Huis Ten Bosch, Japan: Theme-Park City
    Bom Bahia/Bombay/Mumbai/"Slumbay"
    Silicon Valley
    Shanghai, China
    U.S. Urban Roots
    Specks in the Wilderness
    Antiurbanism of the Intellectuals
    From Walking City to Streetcar Suburb
    CHAPTER 5. URBANIZATION AND THE URBAN SYSTEM
    Urbanization of the World's Population
    The Process of Urbanization
    Industrialization and Urbanization in Western Europe and North America
    Urbanization in Poor Countries
    Worldwide, the Present (and Future) Is Urban
    The World Urban System
    Globalization of Cities
    The International Division of Labor, Old and New
    U.S. Cities in the World Urban System
    Cities in the Global Environment
    CHAPTER 6. THE TIES THAT BIND
    What is a Community?
    Communities Based on Territory
    Communities Based on Common Culture
    A Sense of Community
    The Athenian Polis of Ancient Greece
    A Communal Way of Life
    Classical Urban Theory
    Typologies of the Rural-Urban Shift
    Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft (Tönnies)
    Mechanical and Organic Social Solidarity (Durkheim)
    Culture and Civilization (Spengler)
    Urban Personality (Wirth)
    Preindustrial and Industrial Cities (Sjoberg)
    Adding a Third Type: Technoschaft
    How Useful are the Rural-Urban Typologies?
    Untested Hypotheses
    Contrary Evidence
    Deterministic Assumptions
    Contemporary Irrelevance
    Jumbled Variables
    CHAPTER 7. METROPOLITAN COMMUNITY
    Social Cement in the Metropolis
    Metropolitan Community: Alive or Extinct?
    One View: Metropolitan Division of Labor
    Alternative View: New International Division of Labor ("Needle")
    Urban Ecologists versus "New" Urban Theorists: A Case Study
    Measuring Functional Interdependence
    The Need for New Concepts
    Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) and Micropolitan Area in the United States
    Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA) or Megalopolis
    Rural and Micropolitan Areas
    Where Are We Headed in the United States?
    U.S. Population Shifts
    From Rural to Urban
    From Urban to Suburban and Postsuburban
    Back to the Land?
    From Frostbelt to Sunbelt
    Interpreting the Population Trends
    CHAPTER 8. MAKING CONNECTIONS
    Searching for Community, or New Houses?
    Suburbanization: An Almost Worldwide Phenomenon
    Diatribes Against "Suburbia"
    The Myth of Suburbia
    Levittown
    Taking the Sub Out of Suburban
    Energy Costs and Suburbs
    The Transformation of Milpitas, California, 1954-2000
    ZIP Codes as Neighborhoods
    Placeless, Faceless Communities: Interconnectivities
    Social Networks
    A Structural Approach to Community
    What Now, What Next?
    Gated Communities
    Grand Dreams and Grandiose Schemes
    PART III. PLURIBUS VERSUS UNUM
    CHAPTER 9. MOVIN' ON
    Migrant Experiences in the United States
    The Old Migration
    Internal Migration
    The New Migration
    Some Impacts of the Newcomers
    From Ellis Island to LAX
    Adjustments to Urban Life
    Irish Catholics and East European Jews in New York City
    Chicanos and Koreans in Los Angeles
    International Migration and Internal Migration Globally
    Numbers, Definitions, and Data Issues
    Internal Migrants
    The Need for New U.S. Models
    Cubans in Miami
    "Global Villagers"
    CHAPTER 10. IDENTITY CRISIS
    Worldwide Ethnographies
    Global Identity . . .
    . . . versus the Pull of "Lesser Loyalties"
    Civics versus Ethnics
    What Happened to the U.S. Melting Pot?
    Race, Ethnicity, and Minority Groups
    From Minority to Majority
    A Clash of Values: White Ethnics versus WASP Superculture
    Once Again, the Entanglement of Race/Ethnicity and Class
    The Grand Canyon
    Symbolic Ethnicity
    Feelings and Food
    The Stewpot
    Native Americans: The Unassimilated
    African Americans: Permanent Underclass?
    Hispanics/Latinos: Climbing Up?
    Making It: Japanese Americans
    Gays and Lesbians: Like an Ethnic Group?
    Multiculturalism
    PART IV. RULES OF THE GAME
    CHAPTER 11. SOCIAL LADDERS
    Two Ways of Looking at Social Stratification: Marx and Weber
    Living on the Cusp
    Marx and Weber: No Specifically Urban Theory
    Marx and the Concept of Class
    "Dream Up, Blame Down"
    Marx, the Inescapable Critic
    Weber's View of Social Stratification: Class, Status, Power
    Conceptual Updates
    The American Class Structure
    Current Debate: Does Class Still Matter?
    Cultural Capital
    Studies of Urban Social Stratification in the United States
    Yankee City: Lifestyles in a New England Town
    Jonesville: A Typical Town, and How Its People Justify Inequality
    Studies of Particular Strata in the City
    Global Social Stratification Research
    Veracruz, Mexico; Central and Eastern Europe; and China
    Globalization and Inequality
    Other Variables Influencing Social Rank
    Religion
    Ethnicity, Religion, and Region
    Race and Ethnicity
    Ethclass
    Gender
    Women in Cities
    Age
    CHAPTER 12. DISCOVERING THE RULES
    Taking a Fresh Look at the Familiar
    Pedestrian Behavior
    Subway Behavior
    Eavesdropping: Urbanites as Spies
    Bar Behavior
    ATM Behavior
    Office Behavior: A Comparative Look
    Everyday Games and Dramas
    Whose Games Do We Play?
    "The Definition of the Situation" (Thomas)
    Social Order Amid Multiple Realities
    "The Presentation of Self" (Goffman)
    Walking the Tightrope
    Minimizing Involvement, Maximizing Social Order
    Constructing Social Reality
    The Public Definition of Reality
    Combining Micro- and Macroanalysis to Study Social Behavior
    Case Study: Tally's Corner
    PART V. WHO RUNS THIS TOWN?
    CHAPTER 13. THE SKELETON OF POWER
    "Who Runs This Town"
    The Scope of Government
    Government's Limited Scope in the United States
    Paradoxical Attitudes Toward Government
    Public-Private Sector Relationships
    The "Proper" Role of Local Government
    Local Political Environments
    Cities as Creatures of Their State
    General Law Cities and Charter Cities
    Dillon's Rule
    Changing Relationships
    State Legislatures and City Interests
    Suburbs versus Cities
    "Urbanization of the Suburbs"
    Local Governments in a Global Society: "Taking Responsibility for the Sky"
    Forms of City Government
    Mayor-Council Form
    Council-Manager Form
    Commission Form
    Organization of City Governments
    Mayors, Strong or Weak
    Hyperpluralism and Government by Bureaucrats
    The Context of Local Government
    Fragmentation of the Metropolis
    Special Districts
    Counties (Including Urban Counties)
    The State's Role in Urban Affairs
    Areawide Planning Efforts
    Changing Governmental Structures and Patterns
    Broad Regional Government?
    Traditional Responses and Minor Adaptations
    Innovative Experiments
    Privatization of Public Services
    The Report Card
    The Federal Role in Urban Affairs
    Expansion of Federal Involvement in U.S. Life, 1930s-1950s
    How Federal Policy Affected Postwar Housing and Transportation
    From Federalism to the New Federalism, 1960s-1992
    A Nameless Period: 1992-Summer 2008
    The Question Reconsidered: Who Runs This Town?
    Case Study: What Bananas Learned About the Formal Structure of Government
    CHAPTER 14. BOSSES, BOODLERS, AND REFORMERS
    The City Political Machine
    A Bunch of Crooks or Friend of the Poor?
    How City Machines Work(ed)
    What Services Machines Provide(d)
    Case Study: New York City's Tweed Ring, 1866-1871
    Case Study: The Richard J. Daley Machine in Chicago, 1955-1976--and Way Beyond
    Why Machines Rise
    Why Machines Fall
    Local Government Reform
    The Goo-Goos: A Disparate Lot
    Thrusts of the Reform Movement
    How Successful Were the Reformers?
    Bosses and Machines: An Update
    Robert Moses, Newer-Style Boss
    The Local-National Connection
    CHAPTER 15. GETTING THINGS DONE
    Coalition Politics
    U.S. Case Study: The Fight over Yerba Buena
    Community Power
    The Elitist Model
    The Pluralist Model
    The City-as-a-Growth-Machine Model
    Comparing the Models
    Why the Theorists Disagree
    Applying These Models Elsewhere
    Citizen Politics
    Citizen Participation
    Dark Shadows
    Electronic Democracy?
    Case Study Continued: How Bananas Learned Who Runs This Town and Got Some Things Done
    PART VI. SPACE AND PLACE
    CHAPTER 16. METROPOLITAN FORM AND SPACE
    Bringing Space Back In
    Henri Lefebvre's Influence
    The System of Cities
    Central Place Theory
    Does Central Place Theory Work Today?
    The U.S. System of Cities
    Classifying Cities by Function
    Newer Spatial Models
    The Global Network of Cities
    The Internal Structure of U.S. Cities
    Classic Models
    How Useful Are the Classic Models?
    Social Area Analysis: A Method of Investigating Urban Growth and Differentiation
    Computer Models of Urban Structure
    Perspectives on Metropolitan Space Since the 1970s
    The Political Economy Model or the "New" Urban Paradigm
    The Multinucleated Metropolitan Region Model (or "Polycentric Urban Region")
    Where People Live
    How Race and Ethnicity Affect Housing Patterns
    What People Live In
    How Age Affects Housing Patterns
    Gentrification
    Economic Activities in U.S. Metropolitan Space
    Central Business District
    Decentralized and Multicentered Commercial Activities
    Manufacturing
    CHAPTER 17. A SENSE OF PLACE
    Perception: Filtering Reality
    Cultural Filters
    Social Filters
    Psychological Filters
    Perceiving the Built Environment
    Architecture as Symbolic Politics
    Las Vegas, Nevada
    China: Shaping an Emerging National Identity
    Does Environment Determine Behavior?
    Case Study: Pruitt-Igoe St. Louis
    Case Study 2: Cabrini-Green, Chicago
    The Spirit and Energy of Place
    Genius Loci
    Feng Shui
    Experiencing Personal Space
    Personal Space as Protective Bubble
    Personalizing Our Space: Home Territories
    "The Architecture of Despair"
    Privatization of Domestic Public Space
    Privatization of Once-Public Space
    Experiencing Social Space
    Public and Private Space as Symbol
    Colonizing Social Space
    Street People's Turf
    Streets
    Globalization and the Experience of "Somewhere"
    Policy Implications
    Environmental Psychology
    Key Concepts and Research Thrusts
    Rats, Chickens, and People
    Shaping Space
    Design Principles
    Designing the Natural Environment
    The Image of the City
    Making the City Observable
    Designers, Grand and Less Grand
    Pierre-Charles L'Enfant's Washington, D.C.
    Utopian Visionaries
    Company Towns: Lowell, Massachusetts, and Pullman, Illinois
    Baron Haussmann's Paris
    The City Beautiful Movement
    Ebenezer Howard's Garden City
    Megastructures or Ministructures?
    Postnationalist Architecture
    The New Urbanism
    Celebration, Florida: Walt Disney Meets Norman Rockwell?
    Other Alternatives
    "Green" Structures
    Car-less Communities?
    PART VII. PAYING THEIR WAY
    CHAPTER 18. PRODUCING, CONSUMING, EXCHANGING, TAXING, AND SPENDING
    Political Economy: A Beginning Vocabulary
    Supply, Demand, Price, and the Market Mechanism
    Profit
    Utility
    Externalities
    Equity
    Efficiency
    An Alternative Vocabulary
    Capital
    Surplus Value
    Monopoly Capitalism
    Late Capitalism
    Social Structures of Accumulation
    The Informational Mode of Development
    A Participatory Budget
    A Newer Vocabulary
    Restorative Economy and Sustainability
    The Economy of Metropolitan Areas
    Cities and MSAs in the National and Global Economies
    Basic and Nonbasic Sectors
    The Underground Economy
    Identifying Basic Sector Industries
    Case Study: Caliente
    How Globalization Affects Local Finance
    A Volatile Global Economy
    Paying for Local Services
    International Trends
    U.S. National, Regional, and State Trends and Policies
    CHAPTER 19. BLUE-COLLAR, WHITE-COLLAR, NO-COLLAR, SHIRTLESS
    THE POSTWORK SOCIETY
    The Human Dimension: Work and the Individual
    Lowell, Massachusetts: Working Conditions of America's First Female Labor Force
    New England to the New South to Offshore: More Hard Times in the Mill
    Modern Times
    Alienation
    The Anomic Division of Labor
    Worker Satisfaction, Overwork, and Stress
    Worker Underwork--and Stress
    Local Occupational Structures
    The Relationship of Jobs to Social Climate and Governance
    Changing U.S. Employment Patterns
    Contingent or Temporary Work
    The Dual City
    The Dual Nation
    Poverty in U.S. Metropolitan Areas
    Defining Poverty
    Who Are the U.S. Metropolitan Poor?
    Why Are They Poor?
    Tally's Corner
    What Should Be Done About Poverty?
    FINALE: TO BE CONTINUED
    Brief Biographies
    Index