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Cover

Bioethics

Principles, Issues, and Cases

Second Edition

Lewis Vaughn

Publication Date - September 2012

ISBN: 9780199796236

768 pages
Paperback
7-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $86.95

A truly unique hybrid text that combines extensive introductory and explanatory material, a wide variety of current readings, classic and contemporary cases, and more robust pedagogy than any other text

Description

Bioethics: Principles, Issues, and Cases, Second Edition, explores the philosophical, medical, social, and legal aspects of key bioethical issues. Opening with a thorough introduction to ethics, bioethics, and moral reasoning, it then covers influential moral theories and the criteria for evaluating them. Integrating eighty-five readings--thirteen of them new to this edition--numerous cases, and abundant pedagogical tools, the book addresses the most provocative and controversial topics in bioethics.

Updated throughout, the second edition incorporates new information on justice, health care, and health insurance reform along with more coverage of issues related to race and culture and of the moral challenges facing nurses and other health care professionals. It also offers additional step-by-step guidance on how to identify and evaluate moral arguments in real-world contexts, with accompanying exercises and answers in an appendix.


PEDAGOGICAL FEATURES:

* "Classic Case Files" describe landmark cases that shaped the debate, while news-making "Cases for Evaluation" encourage students to form their own opinions

* Various text boxes: "In Depth" boxes contain additional material, illustrations, or analyses, much of it "ripped from the headlines"; "Fact File" boxes provide statistics on the social, medical, and scientific facets of a chapter's topic; and "Legal Brief" boxes summarize important court rulings and the status of major legislation

* "Key Terms" are boldfaced and boxed off within the text and then defined in a glossary at the back of the book

* "Applying Major Theories" sections at the end of each chapter help students relate theories to the issues

* Unique Support Package:
An Instructor's Manual and Testbank on CD features reading summaries, essay questions, key terms, sample syllabi, and numerous test questions

* A Companion Website at www.oup.com/us/vaughn contains Powerpoint lecture outlines, reading summaries, student self-test questions, flashcards, and helpful web links

New to this Edition

  • Thirteen new readings. (To name a few: "Health Care Reform: Lessons from Canada" [Ch. 11]; "Utilitarianism," by John Stuart Mill [Ch. 2]; "The Moral Law," by Immanuel Kant [Ch. 2]; "Virtue and the Moral Life," by Bernard Mayo [Ch. 2]; "The Presumptive Primacy of Procreative Liberty," by John Robertson [Ch. 8]; "Is Women's Labor a Commodity?," by Elizabeth Anderson [Ch. 8]; "Genetic Dilemmas and the Child's Right to an Open Future," by Dena Davis [Ch. 9]; "Death and Dignity: A Case of Individualized Decision Making," by Timothy Quill [Ch. 10])
  • Greater emphasis on bioethical issues and concerns affecting nurses and other health care professionals, with related readings. (New Readings: "In Defense of the Traditional Nurse," by Lisa Newton [Ch. 3]; "Advocacy or Subservience for the Sake of Patients?," by Helga Kuhse [Ch. 3]; "The Ethics of Care," by Virginia Held [Ch. 1])
  • New readings on issues related to culture and race. (New Readings: "Ethical Relativism in a Multicultural Sociaty" [Ch. 3]; "Racism and Research: The Case of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study" [Ch. 6])
  • Updated material throughout the text, including new information on justice, health care, and health insurance reform. / Helps students keep up with the new developments in the field. (Updated Boxes: "Fact File: U.S. Abortions" [Ch. 7]; "In Depth: Abortion and Public Opinion" [Ch. 7]; "Fact File: Assisted Reproduction" [Ch. 8]; "In Depth: Recent Research in Gene Therapy" [Ch. 9]; "Legal Brief: Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide: Major Developments" [Ch. 11]; "In Depth: Public Opinion: Obtaining Adequate Health Care" [Ch. 11]. Updated Text: "President Obama and Stem Cells" [Ch. 9]; "Obama's Health Care Law, 'Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act" [Ch. 11])
  • Additional step-by-step guidance on how to identify and evaluate moral arguments in real-world contexts, with accompanying exercises and answers in an appendix. / Helps students learn how to evaluate arguments in the readings.

About the Author(s)

Lewis Vaughn is the author or coauthor of several books, including Philosophy Here and Now: Powerful Ideas in Everyday Life (2012), Contemporary Moral Arguments, Second Edition (2012), The Power of Critical Thinking, Fourth Edition (2012), and Great Philosophical Arguments (2011), all published by Oxford University Press.

Previous Publication Date(s)

September 2012
March 2009

Reviews

"Bioethics is an excellent choice for courses in biomedical ethics. The readings are comprehensive and thought-provoking, there is ample support material for students, and Vaughn's text is engaging, descriptive, and clear."--David J. Paul, Western Michigan University

"The first two chapters are wonderful for providing background on some basic philosophical tools, ethical concepts, theories, and principles. Each subsequent chapter has clear, useful introductions and well-placed pedagogical tools highlighting important classic cases, legal briefs, and more."--Sara Schuman, Eastern Michigan University and Washtenaw Community College

"The text is well designed, accessible, and a good combination of philosophical readings with feet-on-the-ground cases that are so important for teaching clinical students. It is less expensive than its comparators without sacrificing quality."--Stephen Hanson, University of Louisville

Table of Contents

    *=New to this edition
    Chapters 3-10 include an "Applying Major Theories" section.
    Chapters 3-11 include Cases for Evaluation.
    Each chapter includes Key Terms, a Summary, Further Reading, and Notes.
    Preface
    PART 1. PRINCIPLES AND THEORIES
    CHAPTER 1. MORAL REASONING IN BIOETHICS
    Ethics and Bioethics
    Ethics and the Moral Life
    In Depth: Morality and the Law
    Moral Principles in Bioethics
    Autonomy
    Beneficence
    Utility
    Justice
    Ethical Relativism
    In Depth: Anthropology and Moral Diversity
    Ethics and Religion
    Moral Arguments
    Argument Fundamentals
    Patterns of Moral Arguments
    Review: Valid and Invalid Argument Forms
    In Depth: Fallacies in Moral Reasoning
    Evaluating Premises
    * Assessing Whole Arguments
    CHAPTER 2. BIOETHICS AND MORAL THEORIES
    The Nature of Moral Theories
    Influential Moral Theories
    Utilitarianism
    In Depth: Utilitarianism and the Golden Rule
    Kantian Ethics
    Natural Law Theory
    Rawls' Contract Theory
    Virtue Ethics
    The Ethics of Care
    In Depth: Can Virtue Be Taught?
    Feminist Ethics
    Criteria for Judging Moral Theories
    Review: Evaluating Moral Theories: Criteria of Adequacy
    Applying the Criteria
    Utilitarianism
    Kant's Theory
    * READINGS:
    * "Utilitarianism," John Stuart Mill
    * "The Moral Law," Immanuel Kant
    * "Virtue and the Moral Life," Bernard Mayo
    * "The Ethics of Care," Virginia Held
    PART 2. MEDICAL PROFESSIONAL AND PATIENT
    CHAPTER 3. PATERNALISM AND PATIENT AUTONOMY
    Shades of Autonomy and Paternalism
    Refusing Treatment
    In Depth: The Hippocratic Oath
    Futile Treatment
    Legal Brief: Refusing Treatment for Children on Religious Grounds
    In Depth: CPR and DNR
    * In Depth: Moral Conflicts in Nursing
    Classic Case File: Elizabeth Bouvia
    READINGS:
    "Paternalism," Gerald Dworkin
    "The Refutation of Medical Paternalism," Alan Goldman
    "Why Doctors Should Intervene," Terrence F. Ackerman
    "Autonomy, Futility, and the Limits of Medicine," Robert L. Schwartz
    Bouvia v. Superior Court, California Court of Appeals
    "Fundamental Elements of the Patient-Physician Relationship," AMA Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs
    "Code of Ethics for Nurses," American Nurses Association
    *"In Defense of the Traditional Nurse," Lisa H. Newton
    *"Advocacy or Subservience for the Sake of Patients?" Helga Kuhse
    CHAPTER 4. TRUTH-TELLING AND CONFIDENTIALITY
    Paternalism and Deception
    In Depth: Do Patients Want the Truth? Do Physicians Tell It?
    Confidential Truths
    Legal Brief: Confidentiality and a Duty to Warn
    Classic Case File: Carlos R.
    READINGS:
    "Telling the Truth to Patients: A Clinical Ethics Exploration," David C. Thomasma
    "On Telling Patients the Truth," Mack Lipkin
    "On a Supposed Right to Lie from Altruistic Motives," Immanuel Kant
    "Respect for Patients, Physicians, and the Truth," Susan Cullen and Margaret Klein
    "Why Privacy Is Important," James Rachels
    "Confidentiality in Medicine--A Decrepit Concept," Mark Siegler
    *"Ethical Relativism in a Multicultural Society," Ruth Macklin
    Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California, Supreme Court of California
    CHAPTER 5. INFORMED CONSENT
    Autonomy and Consent
    Conditions of Informed Consent
    In Depth: Two Views of Informed Consent
    Legal Brief: Important Informed Consent Cases
    Classic Case File: Jerry Canterbury
    READINGS:
    "The Concept of Informed Consent," Ruth R. Faden and Tom L. Beauchamp
    "Informed Consent--Must It Remain a Fairy Tale?" Jay Katz
    "Transparency: Informed Consent in Primary Care," Howard Brody
    "Informed Consent: Some Challenges to the Universal Validity of the Western Model," Robert J. Levine
    Canterbury v. Spence, United States Court of Appeals
    CHAPTER 6. HUMAN RESEARCH
    The Science of Clinical Trials
    In Depth: The Tuskegee Tragedy
    Beneficence, Science, and Placebos
    Science and Informed Consent
    In Depth: Women in Clinical Trials
    Research on the Vulnerable
    In Depth: Why Enter a Clinical Trial?
    Classic Case File: The UCLA Schizophrenia Study
    READINGS:
    The Nuremberg Code
    Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects, World Medical Association
    "The Belmont Report," The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research
    "Final Report: Human Radiation Experiments," Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments
    "Of Mice but Not Men: Problems of the Randomized Clinical Trial," Samuel Hellman and Deborah S. Hellman
    "A Response to a Purported Ethical Difficulty with Randomized Clinical Trials Involving Cancer Patients," Benjamin Freedman
    "How to Resolve an Ethical Dilemma Concerning Randomized Clinical Trials," Don Marquis
    * "Racism and Research: The Case of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study," Allan M. Brandt
    "The Ethics of Clinical Research in the Third World," Marcia Angell
    "Ethical Issues in Clinical Trials in Developing Countries," Baruch Brody
    PART 3. LIFE AND DEATH
    CHAPTER 7. ABORTION
    Starting Point: The Basics
    Fact File: U.S. Abortions
    In Depth: Abortion and Public Opinion
    The Legal Struggle
    In Depth: Late-Term Abortion
    Persons and Rights
    Classic Case File: Nancy Klein
    READINGS:
    "A Defense of Abortion," Judith Jarvis Thomson
    "Why Abortion Is Immoral," Don Marquis
    "An Almost Absolute Value in History," John T. Noonan, Jr.
    "On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion," Mary Anne Warren
    "Abortion Decisions: Personal Morality," Daniel Callahan
    "Abortion and the Concept of a Person," Jane English
    "In Defense of Abortion and Infanticide," Michael Tooley
    "Abortion Through a Feminist Ethic Lens," Susan Sherwin
    Roe v. Wade, U.S. Supreme Court
    Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey, U.S. Supreme Court
    CHAPTER 8. REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY
    In Vitro Fertilization
    Fact File: Assisted Reproduction
    Surrogacy
    In Depth: IVF and Children's Future Children
    Cloning
    In Depth: Cloning Time Line
    Classic Case File: Baby M
    READINGS:
    "IVF: The Simple Case," Peter Singer
    "IVF and Women's Interests: An Analysis of Feminist Concerns," Mary Anne Warren
    "'Give Me Children or I Shall Die!' New Reproductive Technologies and Harm to Children," Cynthia B. Cohen
    "Instruction on Respect for Human Life in Its Origin and on the Dignity of Procreation," Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
    * "The Presumptive Primacy of Procreative Liberty," John A. Robertson
    "Surrogate Mothering: Exploitation or Empowerment?," Laura M. Purdy
    "On 'Surrogacy,'" Barbara Katz Rothman
    * Is Women's Labor a Commodity?," Elizabeth S. Anderson
    "The Wisdom of Repugnance," Leon R. Kass
    "Cloning Human Beings: An Assessment of the Ethical Issues Pro and Con," Dan W. Brock
    Opinion in the Matter of Baby M, New Jersey Supreme Court
    CHAPTER 9. GENETIC CHOICES
    Genes and Genomes
    Genetic Testing
    In Depth: Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Tests
    Gene Therapy
    Fact File: Genetic Tests
    Stem Cells
    In Depth: Recent Research in Gene Therapy
    Classic Case File: The Kingsburys
    READINGS:
    "Implications of Prenatal Diagnosis for the Human Right to Life," Leon R. Kass
    "Genetics and Reproductive Risk: Can Having Children Be Immoral?," Laura M. Purdy
    "The Morality of Screening for Disability," Jeff McMahan
    * Genetic Dilemmas and the Child's Right to an Open Future," Dena S. Davis
    "Disowning Knowledge: Issues in Genetic Testing," Robert Wachbroit
    "The Non-Identity Problem and Genetic Harms--The Case of Wrongful Handicaps," Dan W. Brock
    "Is Gene Therapy a Form of Eugenics?," John Harris
    "Genetic Enhancement," Walter Glannon
    "Germ-Line Gene Therapy," LeRoy Walters and Julie Gage Palmer
    "What Does 'Respect for Embryos' Mean in the Context of Stem Cell Research?," Bonnie Steinbock
    "Declaration on the Production and the Scientific and Therapeutic Use of Human Embryonic Stem Cells," Pontifical Academy for Life
    CHAPTER 10. EUTHANASIA & PHYSICIAN-ASSISTED SUICIDE
    Deciding Life and Death
    Legal Brief: Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide: Major Developments
    In Depth: Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide: What Doctors Think and Do
    Autonomy, Mercy, and Harm
    In Depth: Oregon's Death With Dignity Act
    In Depth: Physician-Assisted Suicide and Public Opinion
    Classic Case File: Nancy Cruzan
    READINGS:
    *"Death and Dignity: A Case of Individualized Decision Making," Timothy E. Quill
    "Voluntary Active Euthanasia," Dan W. Brock
    "When Self-Determination Runs Amok," Daniel Callahan
    "When Abstract Moralizing Runs Amok," John Lachs
    "Physician-Assisted Suicide: A Tragic View," John D. Arras
    "Active and Passive Euthanasia," James Rachels
    "The Distinction Between Refusing Medical Treatment and Suicide," New York State Task Force on Life and the Law
    "The Philosophers' Brief," Ronald Dworkin, Thomas Nagel, Robert Nozick, John Rawls, Thomas Scanlon, and Judith Jarvis Thomson
    Vacco v. Quill, U.S. Supreme Court
    Washington v. Glucksberg, U.S. Supreme Court
    PART 4. JUSTICE AND HEALTH CARE
    CHAPTER 11. DIVIDING UP HEALTH CARE RESOURCES
    Health Care in Trouble
    In Depth: Unequal Health Care for Minorities
    Fact File: U.S. Health Care
    Theories of Justice
    In Depth: Public Opinion: Obtaining Adequate Heath Care
    A Right to Health Care
    The Ethics of Rationing
    Classic Case File: Christine deMeurers
    READINGS:
    "Is There a Right to Health Care and, if So, What Does It Encompass?," Norman Daniels
    "The Right to a Decent Minimum of Health Care," Allen E. Buchanan
    "Rights to Health Care, Social Justice, and Fairness in Health Care Allocations: Frustrations in the Face of Finitude," H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr.
    * Health Care Reform: Lessons from Canada," Raisa Berlin Debar
    "Rationing Fairly: Programmatic Considerations," Norman Daniels
    "The Allocation of Exotic Medical Lifesaving Therapy," Nicholas Rescher
    "QALYfying the Value of Life," John Harris
    Appendix
    Glossary
    Index

Teaching Resources

* Unique Support Package:

An Instructor's Manual and Testbank on CD features reading summaries, essay questions, key terms, sample syllabi, and numerous test questions

* A Companion Website at www.oup.com/us/vaughn contains Powerpoint lecture outlines, reading summaries, student self-test questions, flashcards, and helpful web links

Packages

9780199335312
9780199356317
9780199997732
9780199998005