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Cover

Anthropology

What Does It Mean to Be Human?

Second Edition

Robert H. Lavenda and Emily A. Schultz

Publication Date - December 2011

ISBN: 9780195392876

528 pages
Paperback
8-1/2 x 11 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $89.95

A question-oriented approach that shows students the relevance of anthropology in today's world

Description

A unique alternative to more traditional, encyclopedic introductory texts, Anthropology: What Does It Mean to Be Human?, Second Edition, takes a question-oriented approach that incorporates cutting-edge theory and new ways of looking at important contemporary issues such as power, human rights, and inequality. With a total of fifteen chapters, this engaging, full-color text is an ideal one-semester overview that delves deep into anthropology without overwhelming students.

New to this Edition:

* New discussions of gender and archaeology, domestication, social organization, nutritional anthropology, and aboriginality, and significantly updated discussions of genetics and race and human origins

* Discussions of economic and political relations now appear in separate chapters

* "Anthropology in Everyday Life" boxes now appear throughout the book to continually show students the applicability of anthropology

* New "In Their Own Words" commentaries throughout

* New module on the components of language

* In addition to the running glossary, a glossary now appears at the end of the text

-"For Review" sections now appear at the end of each chapter.

Features

  • Covers the material in 15 concise chapters-an ideal length for a one-semester course
  • Addresses issues of power and inequality in the contemporary world, including racism, ethnic discrimination, nationalism, caste, and class
  • Incorporates discussions of gender and feminist anthropology throughout
  • Takes an explicitly global approach, discussing ways in which the spread of capitalism has reshaped how people everywhere live their lives
  • "In Their Own Words" commentaries present new voices and alternative perspectives from nonanthropologists and indigenous peoples
  • "EthnoProfile" boxes provide maps and ethnographic summaries of each society discussed at length in the text
  • Integrates additional pedagogical aids including bolded key terms, a running glossary, chapter summaries, maps, and annotated suggestions for further reading

About the Author(s)

Robert H. Lavenda is Professor of Anthropology and Co-chair of the Department of Anthropology at St. Cloud State University. Emily A. Schultz is Professor of Anthropology at St. Cloud State University.

Previous Publication Date(s)

December 2011
February 2007

Reviews

"I truly love this book. It treats all of the essential elements of an overview course in a sophisticated style with an abundance of maps and photographs." -Rosalyn Howard, University of Central Florida

"More than any I have used, this text parallels the way in which I structure my introductory course. It is easy to read, has excellent chapter summaries, and the color photographs and drawings are much more engaging than those in other texts that I've used." -Charles Riggs, Fort Lewis College

"This is the only anthropology text I have encountered that provides just about the right amount of fact, theory, and examples." -Mary Theresa Bonhage-Freund, Alma College

Table of Contents

    Brief Contents
    List of Boxes
    Preface

    Chapter 1: What Is Anthropology?
    Module 1: Anthropology, Science, and Storytelling
    Chapter 2: Why Is Evolution Important to Anthropologists?
    Chapter 3: What Can Evolutionary Theory Tell Us about Human Variation?
    Module 2: Dating Methods in Paleoanthropology and Archaeology
    Chapter 4: What Can the Study of Primates Tell Us about Human Beings?
    Chapter 5: What Can the Fossil Record Tell Us about Human Origins?
    Chapter 6: How Do We Know about the Human Past?
    Chapter 7: Why Did Humans Settle Down, Build Cities, and Establish States?
    Chapter 8: Why Is the Concept of Culture Important?
    Module 3: On Ethnographic Methods
    Chapter 9: Why Is Understanding Human Language Important?
    Module 4: Components of Language
    Chapter 10: How Do We Make Meaning?
    Chapter 11: Why Do Anthropologists Study Economic Relations?
    Chapter 12: How Do Anthropologists Study Political Relations?
    Chapter 13: Where Do Our Relatives Come From, and Why Do They Matter?
    Chapter 14: What Can Anthropology Tell Us about Social Inequality?
    Chapter 15: What Can Anthropology Tell Us about Globalization?

    Bibliography
    Credits
    Glossary and Index





    Detailed Contents


    List of Boxes

    Preface


    Chapter 1 What Is Anthropology?
    What is Anthropology?
    What is the Concept of Culture?
    What Makes Anthropology a Cross-Disciplinary Discipline?
    Biological Anthropology
    In Their Own Words: Anthropology as a Vocation Listening to Voices

    Cultural Anthropology
    Linguistic Anthropology
    Archaeology
    Applied Anthropology
    Medical Anthropology
    The Uses of Anthropology
    Chapter Summary
    For Review and Discussion
    Key Terms
    Suggested Readings


    Module 1: Anthropology, Science, and Storytelling
    Scientific and Nonscientific Explanations
    Some Key Scientific Concepts
    Module Summary
    For Review and Discussion
    Key Terms


    Chapter 2: Why Is Evolution Important to Anthropologists?
    What is Evolutionary Theory?
    What Material Evidence is There for Evolution?
    Pre-Darwinian Views of The Natural World
    Essentialism
    The Great Chain of Being
    Catastrophism and Uniformitarianism
    Transformational Evolution
    What is Natural Selection?
    Population Thinking
    Natural Selection in Action
    Unlocking the Secrets of Heredity
    Mendel's Experiments
    The Emergence of Genetics
    What Are the Basics of Contemporary Genetics?
    Genes and Traits
    Mutation
    DNA and the Genome
    Anthropology in Everyday Life: Forensic Anthropology and Human Rights

    Genotype, Phenotype, and the Norm of Reaction
    In Their Own Words: How Living Organisms Construct Their Environments

    What does Evolution Mean?
    Chapter Summary
    For Review and Discussion
    Key Terms
    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 3: What Can Evolutionary Theory Tell Us about Human Variation?
    What is Microevolution?
    The Modern Evolutionary Synthesis and Its Legacy
    The Molecularization of Race?
    The Four Evolutionary Processes
    Microevolution and Patterns of Human Variation
    Adaptation and Human Variation
    Phenotype, Environment and Culture

    In Their Own Words: DNA Tests Find Branches but Few Roots
    What is Macroevolution?
    Can We Predict the Future of Human Evolution?
    Chapter Summary
    For Review and Discussion
    Key Terms
    Suggested Readings


    Module 2: Dating Methods in Paleoanthropology and Archaeology
    Relative Dating Methods
    Numerical Dating Methods
    Modeling Prehistoric Climates
    Module Summary
    For Review and Discussion
    Key Terms

    Chapter 4: What Can the Study of Primates Tell Us about Human Beings?
    What Are Primates?
    Approaches to Primate Taxonomy
    The Living Primates
    Strepsirhines
    Haplorhines

    In Their Own Words: The Future of Primate Diversity

    Flexibility as the Hallmark of Primate Adaptations
    In Their Own Words: Chimpanzee Tourism

    Past Evolutionary Trends in Primates
    Primate Evolution: The First 60 Million Years
    Primates of the Paleocene
    Primates of the Eocene
    Primates of the Oligocene
    Primates of the Miocene

    Chapter Summary
    For Review and Discussion
    Key Terms
    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 5: What Can the Fossil Record Tell Us about Human Origins?
    Hominin Evolution
    Who Were the First Hominins? (6-3 mya)
    The Origin of Bipedalism
    Changes in Hominin Dentition

    In Their Own Words: Finding Fossils

    Who Were the Later Australopith? (3-1.5 mya)
    How Many Species of Australopith Were There?

    How Can Anthropologists Explain the Human Transition?
    What Do We Know About Early Homo? (2.4-1.5 mya)
    Expansion of the Australopith Brain
    How Many Species of Early Homo Were There?
    Earliest Evidence of Culture: Stone Tools of the Oldowan Tradition

    Who Was Homo Erectus? (1.8-1.7 mya to 0.5-0.4 mya)
    Morphological Traits of H. erectus
    The Culture of H. erectus
    H. erectus the Hunter

    The Evolutionary Fate of H. Erectus
    How Did Homo Sapiens Evolve?
    Fossil Evidence for the Transition to Modern H. sapiens
    Where Did Modern H. sapiens Come From?

    Who Were The Neandertals? (130,000 to 35,000 years ago)
    Middle Paleolithic/Middle Stone Age Culture
    Did Neandertals Hunt?

    In Their Own Words: Bad Hair Days in the Paleolithic Modern (Re)Constructions of the Cave Man

    What Do We Know About Anatomically Modern Humans? (200,000 years ago to present)
    What Can Genetics Tell Us About Modern Human Origins?

    The Upper Paleolithic/Late Stone Age (40,000? to 12,000 years ago)
    What Happened To The Neandertals?
    Upper Paleolithic/Late Stone Age Cultures
    In Their Own Words: Women's Art in the Upper Paleolithic

    Spread of Modern H. Sapiens in Late Pleistocene Times
    Eastern Asia and Siberia
    The Americas
    Australasia

    Two Million Years of Human Evolution
    Chapter Summary
    For Review and Discussion
    Key Terms
    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 6: How Do We Know About the Human Past?
    Archaeology
    Surveys
    Archaeological Excavation

    Interpreting the Past
    Subsistence Strategies
    Bands, Tribes, Chiefdoms, and States

    Whose Past Is It?
    Plundering the Past
    Contemporary Trends in Archaeology
    Gender Archaeology
    Collaborative Approaches to Studying the Past
    Cosmopolitan Archaeologies

    Anthropology in Everyday Life: Archaeology as a Tool of Civic Engagement
    Chapter Summary
    For Review and Discussion
    Key Terms
    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 7: Why Did Humans Settle Down, Build Cities, and Establish States?
    Human Imagination and the Material World
    Is Plant Cultivation a Form of Niche Construction?
    Animal Domestication
    Was There Only One Motor of Domestication?
    How Did Domestication, Cultivation, and Sedentism Begin in Southwest Asia?
    Natufian Social Organization
    Natufian Subsistence
    Domestication Elsewhere in the World

    What Were the Consequences of Domestication and Sedentism?
    In Their Own Words: The Food Revolution

    What is Social Complexity?
    How Can Anthropologists Explain the Rise of Complex Societies?

    What is the Archaeological Evidence For Social Complexity?
    Why Did Stratification Begin?

    How Can Anthropologists Explain the Rise of Complex Societies?
    Andean Civilization

    In Their Own Words: The Ecological Consequences of Social Complexity

    Chapter Summary
    For Review and Discussion
    Key Terms
    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 8: Why Is The Concept of Culture Important?
    How Do Anthropologists Define Culture?
    In Their Own Words: The Paradox of Ethnocentrism
    In Their Own Words: Culture and Freedom
    Culture, History and Human Agency
    In Their Own Words: Human-Rights Law and the Demonization of Culture
    Why Do Cultural Differences Matter?
    What is Ethnocentrism?
    Is it Possible to Avoid Ethnocentric Bias?
    What is Cultural Relativism?

    How Can Cultural Relativity Improve Our Understanding of Controversial Cultural Practices?
    Genital Cutting, Gender, and Human Rights
    Genital Cutting as a Valued Ritual
    Culture and Moral Reasoning
    Did Their Culture Make Them Do It?

    Does Culture Explain Everything?
    Culture Change and Cultural Authenticity

    The Promise of the Anthropological Perspective
    Chapter Summary
    For Review and Discussion
    Key Terms
    Suggested Readings

    Module 3: On Ethnographic Methods
    A Meeting of Cultural Traditions

    Single-Sited Fieldwork

    Multisited Fieldwork

    Collecting and Interpreting Data

    The Dialectic of Fieldwork: Interpretation and Translation
    Interpreting Actions and Ideas

    The Dialectic of Fieldwork: An Example

    The Effects of Fieldwork

    The Production of Anthropological Knowledge

    Anthropological Knowledge as Open-Ended

    Module Summary
    For Review and Discussion
    Key Terms

    Chapter 9: Why is Understanding Human Language Important?
    How are Language and Culture Related?
    How Do People Talk about Experience?

    In Their Own Words: Cultural Translation

    What Makes Human Language Distinctive?
    What Does it Mean to How Does Context Affect Language?
    How Does Language Affect How We See The World?
    Pragmatics: How Do We Study Language in Contexts of Use?
    Ethnopragmatics

    What Happens When Languages Come into Contact?
    What is Linguistic Inequality?
    What Are Language Habits of African Americans?

    In Their Own Words: Varieties of African American English
    Language Ideology
    Anthropology in Everyday Life: Language Revitalization
    Language, Culture, and Thought
    Perception
    Illusion
    Cognition

    Language, Thought, and Symbolic Practice
    Languages, Symbolic Practices, Worldviews
    What Are Symbols?

    In Their Own Words: The Madness of Hunger
    Symbolic Practices, Worldviews, Selves
    Anthropology in Everyday Life: Lead Poisoning among Mexican American Children
    In Their Own Words: American Premenstrual Syndrome
    Chapter Summary
    For Review and Discussion
    Key Terms
    Suggested Readings

    Module 4: Components of Language
    Phonology: Sounds

    Morphology: Word Structure

    Syntax: Sentence Structure

    Semantics: Meaning

    Module Summary
    For Review and Discussion
    Key Terms

    Chapter 10: How Do We Make Meaning?
    What is Play?
    What do We Think about Play?
    What Are Some Effects of Play?

    What is Art?
    Is There a Definition of Art?

    In Their Own Words: Tango
    What is Myth?
    How Does Myth Reflect and Shape Society?
    Do Myths Help Us Think?

    What is Ritual?
    How Can Ritual Be Defined?
    Ritual As Action?
    What Are Rites of Passage?
    How Are Play and Ritual Complementary?

    In Their Own Words: Video in the Villages

    How Are Worldview and Symbolic Practice Related?
    What is Religion?
    How Do People Communicate in Religion?
    How Are Religion and Social Organization Related?

    Worldviews in Operation: Two Case Studies
    Coping with Misfortune: Witchcraft, Oracles, and Magic Among the Azande
    Are There Patterns of Witchcraft Accusation?
    Coping with Misfortune: Seeking Higher Consciousness among the Channelers

    In Their Own Words: For All Those Who Were Indian in a Former Life
    Maintaining and Changing a Worldview
    How Do People Cope with Change?

    In Their Own Words: Custom and Confrontation
    How Are Worldviews Used As Instruments of Power?
    Chapter Summary
    For Review and Discussion
    Key Terms
    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 11 : Why Do Anthropologists Study Economic Relations?
    How Do Anthropologists Study Economic Relations?
    What are the Connections between Culture and Livelihood?

    How Do Anthropologists Study Production, Distribution, and Consumption?

    How Are Goods Distributed and Exchanged?
    What are Modes of Exchange?

    Does Production Drive Economic Activities?
    Labor
    Modes of Production
    What is the Role of Conflict in Material Life?

    In Their Own Words: Anthropology in Everyday Life: Producing Sorghum and Millet in Honduras and the Sudan
    In Their Own Words: Solidarity Forever
    Why Do People Consume What they Do?
    The Internal Explanation: Malinowski and Basic Human Needs
    The External Explanation: Cultural Ecology
    How is Consumption Culturally Patterned?
    How is Consumption Being Studied Today?

    In Their Own Words: Fake Masks and Faux Modernity
    In Their Own Words: Questioning Collapse
    The Anthropology of Food and Nutrition
    Chapter Summary
    For Review and Discussion
    Key Terms
    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 12: How Do Anthropologists Study Political Relations?
    How Are Culture and Politics Related?
    How Do Anthropologists Study Politics?
    Coercion

    Anthropology in Everyday Life: Doing Business in Japan
    In Their Own Words: Reforming the Crow Constitution
    How Are Politics, Gender, and Kinship Related?
    Hidden Transcripts and the Power of Reflection

    How Are Immigration and Politics Related in the New Europe?

    In Their Own Words: Protesters Gird for Long Fight over Opening Peru's Amazon
    Anthropology in Everyday Life: Human Terrain Teams and Anthropological Ethics
    Chapter Summary
    For Review and Discussion
    Key Terms
    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 13: Where Do Our Relatives Come From and Why Do They Matter?
    What is Kinship?
    Sex, Gender, and Kinship

    What is the Role of Descent in Kinship?
    What Role do Lineages Play in Descent?
    Lineage Membership
    Patrilineages
    What are Matrilineages?

    In Their Own Words: Outside Work, Women, and Bridewealth
    What are Kinship Terminologies?
    What Criteria Are Used For Making Kinship Distinctions?

    What is Adoption?
    Adoption in Highland Ecuador
    European American Kinship and New Reproductive Technologies

    How Does Organ Transplantation Create New Relatives?

    Marriage
    Toward a Definition of Marriage
    Woman Marriage and Ghost Marriage among the Nuer

    Why is Marriage a Social Process?
    Patterns of Residence after Marriage
    Single and Plural Spouses

    In Their Own Words: Two Cheers for Gay Marriage
    How is Marriage an Economic Exchange?
    In Their Own Words: Dowry Too High. Lose Bride and Go to Jail
    What is a Family?
    What is the Nuclear Family?
    What is the Polygynous Family?
    Extended and Joint Families

    In Their Own Words: Law, Custom, and Crimes Against Women
    How are Families Transformed Over Time?
    Divorce and Remarriage

    How Does International Migration Affect the Family?
    Families by Choice
    Friendship

    Anthropology in Everyday Life: Caring for Infibulated Women Giving Birth in Norway
    In Their Own Words: Why Migrant Women Feed Their Husbands Tamales
    How Are Sexual Practices Organized?
    Ranges of Heterosexual Practices
    Other Sexual Practices

    Sexuality and Power

    Chapter Summary
    For Review and Discussion
    Key Terms
    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 14: What Can Anthropology Tell Us About Social Inequality?
    Inequality and Structural Violence in Haiti
    Gender
    Class
    Caste
    Caste in India

    In Their Own Words: As Economic Turmoil Mounts, So Do Attacks on Hungary's Gypsies
    Race
    Colorism in Nicaragua

    In Their Own Words: On the Butt Size of Barbie and Shani Dolls and Race in the United States
    In Their Own Words: The Politics of Ethnicity
    Ethnicity
    Nation and Nationalism
    Australian Nationalism
    Naturalizing Discourses
    The Paradox of Essentialized Identities
    Nation Building in the Postcolonial World: The Example of Fiji
    Nationalism and its Dangers

    Anthropology in Everyday Life: Anthropology and Democracy
    Chapter Summary
    For Review and Discussion
    Key Terms
    Suggested Readings

    Chapter 15: What Can Anthropology Tell Us about Globalization?
    What Happened to the Global Economy after the Cold War?
    Cultural Processes in a Global World
    In Their Own Words: Slumdog Tourism
    In Their Own Words: Cofan: Story of the Forest People and the Outsiders
    Globalization and the Nation-State
    Are Global Flows Undermining Nation-States?
    Migration, Transborder Identities, and Long-Distance Nationalism
    How Can Citizenship be Flexible?

    Are Human Rights Universal?
    Human-Rights Discourse as the Global Language of Social Justice
    Rights versus Culture?
    Rights to Culture?
    Are Rights Part of Culture?
    How Can Culture Help in Thinking about Rights?

    Cultural Imperialism or Cultural Hybridity?
    What is Cultural Imperialism?
    Cultural Hybridity
    Can We Be At Home in a Global World?
    What is Friction?

    In Their Own Words: How Sushi Went Global
    In Their Own Words: The Anthropological Voice
    Why Study Anthropology?
    Chapter Summary
    For Review and Discussion
    Key Terms
    Suggested Readings

    Bibliography
    Credits
    Glossary and Index