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Cover

Air Pollution Meteorology and Dispersion

S. Pal Arya

Publication Date - September 1998

ISBN: 9780195073980

320 pages
Hardcover
7 x 10 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $168.40

Description

Air Pollution Meteorology and Dispersion provides a concise yet thorough review of the basic theories, models, experiments, and observations of pollutant dispersal in the atmosphere. It offers the theoretical and empirical bases of frequently used dispersion models while emphasizing the limitations and uncertainties inherent in these models. Organized into twelve chapters, the material is presented in order of increasing difficulty. The first half of the book treats the basic tenets of air pollution modeling; the second half deals with the more detailed theoretical and observational aspects of dispersion. Sufficient background material on atmospheric structure, dynamics, and circulation systems and their importance to atmospheric dispersion is included for students who do not yet have a strong meteorological background. Turbulence and diffusion theories, such as gradient transport, statistical, and similarity theories, as well as analytical and numerical dispersion and air quality models, are also discussed. Problems and exercises are included in each chapter, making this an ideal text for undergraduate and graduate courses in atmospheric science and mechanical engineering.

About the Author(s)

S. Pal Arya is Professor of Meteorology in the Department of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences at North Carolina State University, Raleigh. Well known for his research in the areas of environmental fluid mechanics, atmospheric boundary layer, turbulence and dispersion, he has published many articles in scientific journals. Arya is also the author of Introduction to Micrometeorology (1988) and chapters in other books on meteorology. He is a Fellow of the American Meteorological Society and American Association for the Advancement of Science and a member of the American Geophysical Union.

Table of Contents

    Preface
    Acknowledgments
    1. INTRODUCTION TO AIR POLLUTION
    1.1. The Air Pollution Problem
    1.2. Sources of Air Pollution
    1.3. Air Pollutants
    1.4. Effects of Air Pollution
    1.5. Regulatory Control of Air Pollution
    2. ATMOSPHERIC STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS
    2.1. Introduction
    2.2. Composition and Thermal Structure of the
    Atmosphere
    2.3. State Variables and Thermodynamics
    2.4. Atmospheric Stability
    2.5. Conservation Laws and Atmospheric Dynamics
    2.6. Large-scale Inviscid Flows
    2.7. Small-scale Viscous Flows
    2.8. Applications
    3. ATMOSPHERIC SYSTEMS AND POLLUTANT TRANSPORT
    3.1. Introduction
    3.2. Macroscale Systems
    3.3. Synoptic Weather Systems
    3.4. Mesoscale Systems
    3.5. Microscale Systems
    4. MICROMETEOROLOGY AND PLANETARY BOUNDARY LAYER
    4.1. Introduction and Definitions
    4.2. Earth-Atmosphere Exchange Processes
    4.3. Vertical Distribution of Thermodynamic Variables
    4.4. Vertical Distribution of Winds in the PBL
    4.5. Turbulence
    4.6. Gradient-transport Theories
    4.7. Similarity Theories
    4.8. Boundary-layer Parameterization for Dispersion
    Applications
    5. STATISTICAL DESCRIPTION OF ATMOSPHERIC TURBULENCE
    5.1. Reynolds Averaging
    5.2. Probability Functions
    5.3. Autocorrelation Functions
    5.4. Spectrum Functions
    5.5. Taylor's Hypothesis
    5.6. Statistical Theory of Turbulence
    5.7. Observed Spectra and Scales
    5.8. Effects of Smoothing and Finite Sampling
    5.9. Lagrangian Description of Turbulence
    5.10. Parameterization of Turbulence for Diffusion Applications
    6. GRADIENT TRANSPORT THEORIES
    6.1. Eulerian Approach to Describing Diffusion
    6.2. Mass Conservation and Diffusion Equations
    6.3. Molecular Diffusion
    6.4. Turbulent Diffusion
    6.5. Constant K (Fickian Diffusion) - Theory
    6.6. Variable K-Theory
    6.7. Limitations of Gradient Transport Theories
    6.8. Experimental Verification of K-Theories
    6.9. Applications of K-Theories to Atmospheric Dispersion
    7. STATISTICAL THEORIES OF DIFFUSION
    7.1. Lagrangian Approach to Describing Diffusion
    7.2. Statistical Theory of Absolute Diffusion
    7.3. Plume Diffusion from Continuous Sources
    7.4. Statistical Theory of Relative Diffusion
    7.5. Puff Diffusion from Instantaneous Releases
    7.6. Fluctuating Plume Models
    7.7. Experimental Verification of Statistical Theories
    7.8. Applications to Atmospheric Dispersion and Limitations
    8. SIMILARITY THEORIES OF DISPERSION
    8.1. Dispersion in Stratified Shear Flows
    8.2. Lagrangian Similarity Theory for the Neutral Surface Layer
    8.3. Lagrangian Similarity Theory for the Stratified Surface Layer
    8.4. The Mixed-layer Similarity Theory
    8.5. Experimental Verification of Similarity Theories
    8.6. Applications to Dispersion in the PBL
    8.7. Limitations of Similarity Theories
    9. GAUSSIAN DIFFUSION MODELS
    9.1. Basis and Justification for Gaussian Models
    9.2. Gaussian Plume and Puff Diffusion Models
    9.3. Diffusion Experiments
    9.4. Empirical Dispersion Parameterization Schemes
    9.5. Further Improvements in Dispersion Parameterization
    9.6. The Maximum Ground-Level Concentration
    9.7. Model Evaluations and Uncertainties
    9.8. Limitations of Gaussian Diffusion Models
    9.9. Practical Applications of Gaussian Diffusion Models
    10. PLUME RISE, SETTLING, AND DEPOSITION
    10.1. Momentum and Buoyancy Effects of Release
    10.2. Plume-rise Theory and Observations
    10.3. Gravitational Settling of Particles
    10.4. Dry Deposition
    10.5. Dispersion-Deposition Models
    10.6. Applications
    11. NUMERICAL DISPERSION MODELS
    11.1. Introduction
    11.2. Short-range Gradient Transport Models
    11.3. Turbulence Kinetic Energy Models
    11.4. Higher Order Closure Models
    11.5. Large-eddy Simulations
    11.6. Lagrangian Stochastic Models
    12. URBAN AND REGIONAL AIR QUALITY MODELS
    12.1. Introduction
    12.2. Components of an Air Quality Model
    12.3. Urban Diffusion and Air Quality
    12.4. Regional Air Quality Models
    12.5. Applications of Air Quality Models
    References
    Symbols
    Index
    All Chapters end with Problems and Exercises