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Cover

A Historical Introduction to Philosophy

Texts and Interactive Guides

Edited by James Fieser and Norman Lillegard

Publication Date - January 2002

ISBN: 9780195139846

736 pages
Paperback
7-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $92.95

Description

Offering a unique pedagogical apparatus, A Historical Introduction to Philosophy: Texts and Interactive Guides provides selections from the most influential primary works in philosophy from the Presocratics through the twentieth century, integrating them with substantial commentary and study questions. It offers extensive treatment of the Hellenistic and Renaissance periods--which are typically given only minimal coverage in other anthologies--and devotes substantial chapters to nineteenth- and twentieth-century philosophy. The selections are organized historically and are presented in short and manageable sections with organizational headings and subheadings; archaic and difficult material has been adapted for clarity. Accompanying commentaries simplify difficult passages, explain technical terminology, and expand upon allusions to unfamiliar literature and arguments. Study questions are interspersed throughout the chapters in "Ask Yourself" boxes and vary with respect to format and level of difficulty. They require students to reconstruct arguments, summarize passages, complete blanks in statements and arguments, evaluate the success or viability of a philosophical point, or draw contemporary parallels and applications. The questions are carefully framed so as to avoid commitment to any particular side in controversies. Instructors can assign those questions that will best suit the aims of their courses and aid their students' comprehension of the primary source material. A Historical Introduction to Philosophy is enhanced by a comprehensive time line, a glossary, and lists of suggested further readings for both primary and secondary sources. This rich and flexible anthology and interactive textbook is ideal for introduction to philosophy and history of philosophy courses.

Table of Contents

    Preface
    Time Line
    1. EARLY GREEK PHILOSOPHY
    Introduction
    Homer and Hesiod
    Principal concerns of the Presocratics
    Milesians
    Thales
    Anaximander
    Anaximenes
    Other Ionians
    Xenophanes
    Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans
    Heraclitus
    The Eleatics
    Parmenides
    Zeno
    Pluralist Alternatives to Parmenides
    Empedocles
    Anaxagoras
    The Atomists: Parmenides as Pluralist
    The Sophists: Rhetoric and Virtue for a Price
    Protagoras and Gorgias
    2. SOCRATES AND PLATO
    Introduction
    Socrates
    The Euthyphro
    Meno
    The Apology
    Plato
    Introduction to the Theory of Forms
    Phaedo
    The Republic
    Phaedrus
    3. ARISTOTLE
    Introduction
    Logical Works
    Categories
    Nature and the Soul
    Physics
    On the Soul
    Ethics
    Book 1
    Book 2
    Book 3
    4. HELLENISTIC PHILOSOPHY
    Epicureanism
    Atoms and Free Will
    Fearing the Gods
    Fear of Death
    Pleasure and Pain
    Prudence and Freedom
    Stoicism
    Zeno of Citium: Logic, Physics, and Ethics
    Epictetus
    Cynicism
    Antisthenes and Diogenes
    Skepticism
    Academics and Pyrrhonians
    The Goal and Criterion of Skepticism
    The Ten Modes of Skepticism
    5. MEDIEVAL PHILOSOPHY
    Augustine
    Book 1. Good and Evil
    Book 2.
    Book 3.
    The Confessions: Augustine on Time
    Anselm
    Proslogion 1
    Averroes (from The Decisive Treatise Determining the Nature of the Connection Between Religion and Philosophy)
    Chapter 2: Philosophy and Religion Belong Together
    Chapter 3: The Elite and Ordinary Believers
    Moses Maimonides (from The Guide for the Perplexed)
    God and Biblical Language
    Thomas Aquinas (from Summa Theologica)
    The Existence of God
    Natural Law
    6. RENAISSANCE AND EARLY MODERN PHILOSOPHY
    Humanism
    Pico's Oration
    More's Utopia
    The Reformation
    Luther's Appeal
    Calvin's Institutes
    Fideism and Skepticism
    Montaigne's Apology (from "Apology for Raymond Sebond")
    Bayle's Dictionary (from "Psyrrho" in Historical and Critical Dictionary)
    Pascal's Wager (from Thoughts)
    Astronomy
    The Earth-Centered System of the Universe
    Copernicus ("Dedication" to On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres)
    Galileo (from "letter to Giacomo Muti," and Dialogues on the Two Chief Systems of the World)
    Newton (from "Preface" to Principia Mathematica)
    Implications of Modern Astronomy
    Scientific Method
    Bacon and Induction
    Descartes's Method
    Newton's Method of Investigation (from Principia Mathematica and Optics)
    Mathematics and Scientific Method
    7. RATIONALISM
    René Descartes
    Meditation 1: Concerning Those Things That Can Be Called Into Doubt
    Meditation 2: Concerning the Nature of the Human Mind: That the Mind Is More Known Than the Body
    Meditation 3: Of God: That He Exists
    Meditation 6: Of the Existence of Material Things, and of the Real Distinction between the Soul and Body of Man
    Supplementary Selections
    Benedict Spinoza (from The Ethics)
    God Does Not Willfully Direct the Course of Nature
    Nicholas Malebranche (from The Search after Truth)
    Chapter 1, Section 1: What Is Meant by Ideas; That They Truly Exist, and That They Are Necessary to Perceive All Material Objects
    Chapter 6: That We See All Things In God
    Occasionalism
    Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
    Monads
    Human Perception
    Good
    Body and Soul
    The Human Spirit
    Against Atoms and a Vacuum
    Anne Conway
    All Creatures Are Changeable
    Against Descartes, Hobbes, and Spinoza
    8. BRITISH EMPIRICISM
    John Locke (from Essay Concerning Human Understanding)
    1:2. No Speculative Innate Principles in the Mind
    2:1. Of Ideas in General and Their Origin
    2:2. Of Simple Ideas
    2:3. Of Simple Ideas of Sense
    2:5. Of Simple Ideas of Diverse Senses
    2:6. Of Simple Ideas of Reflection
    2:7. Of Simple Ideas of Both Sensation and Reflection
    2:8. Some Farther Considerations Concerning Our Simple Ideas
    2:12. Of Complex Ideas
    4:3. Of the Extent of Human Knowledge
    4:9. Of Our Threefold Knowledge of Existence
    4.11. Of Our Knowledge of the Existence of Other Things
    George Berkeley
    Dialogue One
    Dialogue Two
    Dialogue Three
    David Hume (from Enquiries and Treatise of Human Nature
    Section 2: Of the Origin of Ideas
    Section 3: Of the Association of Ideas
    Section 7: Of the Idea of Necessary Connection
    Section 10: Of Miracles
    Section 12: Of The Academical or Skeptical Philosophy
    Personal Identity
    Moral Theory
    9. LATE MODERN AND NINETEENTH-CENTURY PHILOSOPHY
    Thomas Reid (from Inquiry into the Human Mind)
    Introduction
    Chapter II. Of Smelling
    Immanuel Kant (from Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics and Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals)
    Introduction
    Preamble on the Peculiarities of All Metaphysical Knowledge
    How Is Pure Mathematics Possible?
    How Is the Science of Nature Possible?
    How Is Metaphysics in General Possible?
    Kant's Ethical Theory
    Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (from Preface to Phenomenology of Mind)
    Introduction
    Philosophy and History
    The Unity of Subject and Object
    History as Rational
    Soren Kierkegaard (from Either/Or vol. I and II)
    Introduction: Kierkegaard's "Existentialism"
    The Life of Enjoyment
    The Ethical Life
    Mary Wollstonecraft (from Vindication of the Rights of Women)
    The Rights of Women; True Virtue and True Social Flourishing
    Education, Virtue, and the Need for a Revolution in Manners
    John Stuart Mill (from Utilitarianism)
    1: General Remarks
    2: What Utilitarianism Is
    Friedrich Nietzsche (from The Birth of Tragedy, The Genealogy of Morals, The Joyful Science, and Thus Spake Zarathustra)
    Art, Morality, and Religion
    The Critique of Morality
    The Death of God
    10. TWENTIETH-CENTURY AND CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHY
    Bertrand Russell
    Knowledge by Acquaintance and Knowledge by
    Description
    Ludwig Wittgenstein
    Introduction
    Language and Use
    Willard Van Orman Quine
    The Nature of Modern Empiricism
    Background for Analyticity
    Definition
    Interchangeability
    The Verification Theory and Reductionism
    Empiricism without the Dogmas
    Jean-Paul Sartre
    Freedom in a Godless World
    G.E.M. Anscombe
    Modern Moral Philosophy
    Glossary
    Index