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Table of Contents

Chapters 1 and 4-8 open with an Introduction.
Each chapter ends with Supplemental Exercises and Answers.

Preface PART ONE. PARAPHRASING

1. THE BARE-BONES PARAPHRASE
The Concept of Paraphrase
Reading and Paraphrase
Technique and Vocabulary
Human Understanding
Subtler Issues
Two Principles of Paraphrasing
Things to Keep in Mind

2. READING FOR STRUCTURE: DEPENDENCY AND SUBORDINATION
Complexity
Technique and Vocabulary
Useful Patterns
Tricks for Tough Cases
Systematic Features
Trial and Error Exercise

3. READING FOR REASONING: PARAPHRASING ARGUMENTS
Reading for a Particular Purpose
Reading for Reasoning
A Shortcut: Schematizing Directly from a Passage
Charitable Schematizing

PART TWO. ANALYZING REASONING

4. ARGUMENT ANALYSIS: ANSWERING QUESTIONS
The Purpose of Analysis
The Fundamental Concepts: Questions and Answers
Refining the Apparatus and Exercising Our Skills
Evaluating Arguments: How Good Are the Reasons?
Interim Summary: What We Have Learned So Far
Dealing with Disagreement

5. DIAGNOSTIC ARGUMENTS: REASONING BY EXPLAINING
Diagnostic Questions
Diagnostic Concepts
Objects and Resources
Refinements
Diagnostic Investigation

6. DIAGNOSTIC PATTERNS
Cause and Correlation
Testimony
Sampling
Counting Cases: Induction by Enumeration
Circumstantial Evidence

7. FURTHER APPLICATIONS: PREDICTION AND RECOMMENDATION
Prediction
Recommendation

8. FALLACIES
Fallacies of Construction
Critical Fallacies

APPENDIX. DEDUCTION
Introduction
Semantic Conflict
Semantic Evaluation
Deductive Arguments
Structure
Tests and Criteria
Relative Strength
Summary

Glossary of Important Terms
Index

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