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Barham, L. S., and Mitchell, P. 2008. The first Africans: African archaeology from the earliest toolmakers to most recent foragers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Barnard, A. 2004. Hunter-Gatherers in history, archaeology and anthropology. Oxford: Berg Publishers.
Giles-Vernick, T. 2002. Cutting the vines of the past: environmental histories of the central African rainforest. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.
Ichikawa, M. 1982. The hunters of the forest: the Mbuti pygmies. Kyoto: Jinbuin-Shoin.
Cavalli-Sforza LL, editor.1986. African pygmies. Orlando (FL): Orlando Academic Press.
Cavalli-Sforza LL, Menozzi P, Piazza A. 1993. The history and geography of human genes. Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press.
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Grinker, Roy R. 2001. In the Arms of Africa: The Life of Colin M. Turnbull. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hewlett, Barry. (1991). Intimate Fathers: The Nature and Context of Aka Pygmy Paternal Infant. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-08203-2.
Jacqueline M.C. Thomas, Serge Bahuchet, Alain Epelboin, Susanne Furniss. 2008.
The Aka Pygmy Encyclopedia A Review of Forty Years of Interdisciplinary Research.
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Kisliuk, M. 2000. Seize the dance: BaAka musical life and the ethnography of performance. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lee, Richard and Daly, Richard. 2004. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunters and Gatherers”. Cambridge University Press.
Rupp, Stephanie. 2011. Forests of Belonging: Identities, Ethnicities, and Stereotypes in the Congo River Basin (Culture, Place, and Nature: Studies in Anthropology and Environment). University of Washington Press.
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Articles and Book Chapters:
Bahuchet, S., and Guillaume, H. 1982. Aka-Farmer relations in the northwest Congo Basin. In E. Leacock and R. B. Lee (eds.), Politics and History in Band Societies, 189-211 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bahuchet, S. 1992. Spatial mobility and access to resources among the African pygmies. In M. Casimir and A. Rao (eds.), Mobility and territoriality: social and spatial boundaries among foragers, fishers, pastoralists and peripatetics, 205-257. New York: Berg.
Bahuchet, S., McKey, D., and de Garine, I. 1991. Wild yams revisited: is independence from agriculture possible for rain forest hunter-gatherers? Human Ecology 19, 213-243.
Bailey, R. C., and Aunger, R. V. 1989. Net hunters vs. archers: variation in women’s subsistence strategies in the Ituri Forest. Human Ecology 17, 273-297.
Bailey, R. C., and DeVore, I. 1989. Studies of Efe pygmies and Lese horticulturalists in the Ituri Forest, Zaire. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 78, 459-471.
Bailey, R. C., and Headland, T. N. 1991. The tropical rain forest: is it a productive environment for human foragers? Human Ecology 19, 261-285.
Bailey, R.C., Bahuchet, S., and Hewlett, B.S. 1992. Development in the Central African
rainforest: Concern for forest peoples. In Conservation of West and Central African Rainforests. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
Batini, C., Coia, V., Battaggia, C., Rocha, J., Pilkington, M. M., Spedini, G., Comas, D.. Destro-Bisol, G., and Calafell, F. 2007. Phylogeography of the human mitochondrial L1c haplogroup: genetic signatures of the prehistory of central Africa. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43, 635-644.
Becker, N. S. A., Verdu, P., Hewlett, B., and Pavard, S. 2010. Can life history trade-offs explain the evolution of short stature in human pygmies: a response to Migliano and colleagues. Human Biology 82, 17-27.
Curran, B. K., and Tshombe R. K. 2001. Integrating local communities into the management of protected areas: lessons from the DR Congo and Cameroon. In W. Weber, L. J. T. White, A. Vedder, and L. Naughton-Treves (eds.), African rain forest ecology and conservation: an interdisciplinary perspective, 513-534. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Diamond, J. 1991. Why are pygmies small? Nature 354, 111-112.
Dounias, E. 1993. Perception and use of wild yams by the Baka hunter-gatherers in south Cameroon. In C. M. Hladik, A. Hladik, O. F. Linares, H. Pagezy, A. Semple, and M. Hadley (eds.), Tropical forests, people and food: biocultural interactions and applications to development, 621-632. Paris: UNESCO.
Dounias, E. 1996. Sauvage ou cultive? La paraculture des ignames sauvages par les pygmees Baka du Cameroun. In C. M. Hladik, A. Hladik, H. Pagezy, O. F. Linares, G. J. A. Koppert, and A. Froment (eds.), L’alimentation en foret tropicale: interactions bioculturelles et perspectives de developpement, 939-960. Paris: UNESCO.
Dounias, E. 2001. The management of wild yam tubers by the Baka pygmies in southern Cameroon. African Study Monographs, Supplement 26, 135-156.
Fancher, J. M. 2009. An ethnoarchaeological analysis of small prey bones produced by forest foragers of the Central African Republic. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Washington State University.
Fouts, H. N., Hewlett, B. S., and Lamb, M. E. 2001. Weaning and the nature of early childhood interactions among Bofi foragers in central Africa. Human Nature 12, 27-46.
Fouts, H. N., Hewlett, B. S., and Lamb, M. E. 2005. Parent-Offspring weaning conflicts among the Bofi farmers and foragers of central Africa. Current Anthropology 46, 29-50.
Fouts et al. 2012. “A Biocultural Approach to Breastfeeding Interactions in Central Africa” American Anthropologist.
Fürniss, S. 1993. Rigeur et liberte: la polyphonie vocale des pygmees Aka (Centrafrique). In C. Meyer (ed.), Polyphonies de tradition orale. Histoire et traditions vivantes, 101-131. Paris: Creaphis.
Furniss, Suzanne.2005. “Femmes, maîtresses, mères.” Cahiers d’ethnomusicologie.
Harako, R. 1976. The Mbuti as hunters: a study of ecological anthropology of the Mbuti pygmies (I). Kyoto University African Studies 10, 37-99.
Hart, J. A. 2000. Impact and sustainability of indigenous hunting in the Ituri Forest, Congo-Zaire: a comparison of the unhunted and hunted duiker populations. In J. G. Robinson and E. L. Bennett (eds.), Hunting for sustainability in tropical forests, 106-153. New York: Columbia University Press.
Hattori, S. 2005. Nature conservation and hunter-gatherers’ life in Cameroonian rainforest. African Study Monographs, Supplement 29, 41-51.
Hattori, S. 2006. Utilization of Marantaceae plants by Baka hunter-gatherers in southeastern Cameroon. African Study Monographs, Supplement 33, 29-48.
Hayashi, K. 2008. Hunting activities in forest camps among the Baka hunter-gatherers o. southeastern Cameroon. African Study Monographs 29, 73-92.
Hess, N. et al. “Interpersonal Aggression among Aka Hunter-Gatherers
of the Central African Republic Assessing the Effects of Sex, Strength, and Anger.” Hum Nat (2010).
Hewlett, BL. And Hewlett B.S. 2013. “Hunter-Gatherer Adolescence.” In Adolescent Identity: Evolutionary, cultural and developmental perspectives. Routledge.
Hewlett, B. S. 1996. Cultural diversity among African pygmies. In S. Kent (ed.), Cultural diversity among twentieth century foragers: an African perspective, 215-244. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hewlett, B.S., Lamb M.E., Leyendecker, B., and A. Schölmerich. 2000. Internal working models, trust, and sharing among foragers. Current Anthropology 41, 287-297.
Hill, Kim R. et al. 2011.“Human Social Structure Co-Residence Patterns in Hunter- Gatherer Societies Show Unique Human Social Structure.” Science 331, 1286.
Hirasawa, A. 2005. Infant care among the sedentarized Baka hunter-gatherers in southeastern Cameroon. In B. Hewlett and M. Lamb (eds.), Hunter-Gatherer childhoods, 365-384. New Brunswick: Aldine/Transaction.
Ichikawa, M. 1978. The residential groups of the Mbuti pygmies. Senri Ethnological Studies 1, 131-188.
Ichikawa, M. 1998. The birds as indicators of the invisible world: ethno-ornithology of the Mbuti hunter-gatherers. African Study Monographs, Supplement 25, 105-121.
Ichikawa, M. 2004a. Benefit of foresight: from evolutionary interest to global environmental problems. Before Farming 4, Article 7.
Ichikawa, M. 2004b. The Japanese tradition of central African hunter-gatherer studies: with comparative observation on the French and American traditions. In A. Barnard (ed.), Hunter-Gatherers in history, archaeology and anthropology, 103- 114. Oxford: Berg Publishers.
Ichikawa, M. 2005. The history and current situation of anthropological studies on Africa in Japan. The African Anthropologist (Journal of the Pan African Anthropological Association) 12, 158-171.
Ichikawa, M. 2006. Problems in the conservation of rainforests in Cameroon. African Study Monographs, Supplement 33, 3-20.
Joiris, D. 2003. The framework of central African hunter-gatherers and neighbouring societies. African Study Monographs, Supplement 28, 57-79.
Kenrick, J. 2001. Present predicaments of hunter gatherers and former hunter gatherers of the central African rainforests. In A. Barnard and J. Kenrick (eds.), Africa’s indigenous people: first peoples or marginalised minorities?, 39-60. Edinburgh: Centre of African Studies.
Kenrick, J. 2002. Anthropology and anthropocentrism: images of hunter-gatherers, westerners and the environment. In H. Stewart, A. Barnard, and K. Omura (eds.), Self- and other-images of hunter-gatherers, 191-213. SENRI Ethnological Studies, Volume 60, Special Issue. Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology.
Kenrick, J., and Lewis, J. 2001. Discrimination against the forest people (“pygmies”) of central Africa. In S. Chama and M. Jensen (eds.), Racism against indigenou. people, 312-325. Copenhagen: IWGIA.
Kitanishi, K. 1996. Variability in the subsistence activities and distribution of food among different aged males of the Aka hunter-gatherers in northeastern Congo. African Study Monographs 17, 35-57.
Kitanishi, K. 1998. Food sharing among the Aka hunter-gatherers in northeastern Congo. African Study Monographs, Supplement 25, 3-32.
Kitanishi, K. 2006. The impact of cash and commoditization on the Baka hunter-gathere. society in southeastern Cameroon. African Study Monographs, Supplement 33, 121-142.
Lewis, J. 2001. Forest people or village people. Whose voice will be heard? In A. Barnard and J. Kenrick (eds.), Africa’s indigenous peoples: ‘first peoples’ or ‘marginalized minorities’?, 61-78. Edinburgh: Center of African Studies.
Lewis, J. 2005. Whose forest is it anyway? Mbendjele Yaka pygmies, the Ndoki Forest, and the wider world. In W. Tadesse and T. Widlock (eds.), Property and equality: encapsulation, commercialisation, discrimination, 56-78. Oxford: Berghahn
Lupo, K. D., and Schmitt, D. N. 2002. Upper Paleolithic net-hunting, small prey exploitation, and women’s work effort: a view from the ethnographic and ethnoarchaeological record of the Congo Basin. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 9, 147-179.
Lupo, K. D., and Schmitt, D. N. 2004. Meat sharing and the archaeological record: a test of the show-off hypothesis among central African Bofi foragers. In G. M. Crothers (ed.), Hunters and gatherers in theory and archaeology, 241-260. Center for Archaeological Investigations Southern Illinois University Carbondale Occasional Paper No. 31.
Meehan, C. 2005. The effects of maternal locality on alloparental behavior and frequency of caregiving among the Aka foragers of the Central African Republic. Human Nature 16, 58-80.
Migliano, A. B., Vinicius, L., and Lahr, M. M. 2007. Life history trade-offs explain the evolution of human pygmies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104, 20216-20219.
Motte-Florac, E., Bahuchet, S., and Thomas, J. M. C. 1993. The role of food in the therapeutics of the Aka pygmies of the Central African Republic. In C. M. Hladik. A. Hladik, O. F. Linares, H. Pagezy, A. Semple, and M. Hadley (eds.), Tropical forests, people and food: biocultural interactions and applications to development, 549-560. Paris: UNESCO.
Noss, A. J. 2001. Conservation, development, and ‘the forest people’: the Aka of the Central African Republic. In W. Weber, L. J. T. White, A. Vedder, and L. Naughton-Treves (eds.), African rain forest ecology and conservation: an interdisciplinary perspective. 313-333. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Noss, A. and Hewlett, B. 2001.“Contexts of Female Hunting in Central Africa.” American Anthropologist.
Rupp, S. 2003. Interethnic relations in southeastern Cameroon: challenging the ‘hunter- gatherer’ – ‘farmer’ dichotomy. African Study Monographs, Supplement 28, 37-56.
Takeuchi, K. 1994. Dietary avoidance among the Aka hunter-gatherers, northeastern Congo. Journal of African Studies 44, 1-28.
Takeuchi, K. 1995. Subsistence hunting in African tropical forest: hunting techniques and activities among the Aka hunter-gatherers, northeastern Congo. Zooarchaeology 4, 27-52.
Terashima, H. 1987. Why Efe girls marry farmers: socio-ecological backgrounds of inter-ethnic marriage in the Ituri Forest. African Study Monographs 6, 65-84.
Terashima, H. 1998. Honey and holidays: the interactions mediated by honey between Efe hunter-gatherers and Lese farmers in the Ituri Forest. African Study Monographs, Supplement 25, 123-134.
Terashima, H., and Ichikawa, M. 2003. A comparative ethnobotany of the Mbuti and Efe hunter- gatherers in the Ituri Forest, Democratic Republic of Congo. African Study Monographs 24, 1-168.
Terashima, H., Ichikawa, M., and Sawada, M. 1988. Wild plant utilization of the Balese and the Efe of the Ituri Forest, the Republic of Zaire. African Study Monographs, Supplement 8, 1-78.
Verdu, P., Austerlitz, A. E., Vitalis, R., Georges, M., Théry, S., Froment, A., Le Bomin, S., Gessain, A., Hombert, J-M., Van der Veen, L., Quintana-Murci, L., Bahuchet, S., and Heyer, E. 2009. Origins and genetic diversity of pygmy hunter-gatherers from western central Africa. Current Biology 19, 1-7.
Walker, R., Gurven, M., and Hill, K. 2006. Growth rates and life histories in twenty-tw. smallscale societies. American Journal of Human Biology 18:295-311
Yasuoka, H. 2009. The variety of forest vegetations in south-eastern Cameroon, with special reference to the availability of wild yams for the forest hunter- gatherers. African Study Monographs 30, 89-119.