One major revenue stream for state government comes from the 1998 tobacco settlement. One element of the settlement, the Master Agreement requires that "U.S. tobacco companies … pay approximately $229 billion between 1999 and 2025 to 46 states, the District of Columbia, and five U.S. territories" (Johnson 2004, 113). Johnson found that states are using the tobacco settlement monies primarily for healthcare, education, infrastructure projects, and the basis for debt issuance. Nevertheless, state budget makers should consider this funding a short-term fix to any future revenue problems—2025 is no longer on the dim horizon. As a slack resource, the tobacco settlement monies could serve as an important part of the public policy innovations necessary to build sustainable governance. Slack resources have been shown to have a positive effect on the budget process and outcomes (see Marlowe 2005).