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Table of Contents

  1. Introduction and Themes
    Introduction
    Forces Facing State and Local Governments
    Demographic Change
    Urbanization
    Globalization and Economic Change
    Technological Change
    Value Change
    Environmental Change and Concern
    Sustainable and Resilient States and Communities
    Summary and Book Outline

  2. Federalism
    Introduction
    Units of Government
    Historic Roots of Federalism
    Advantages of Federalism
    Potential Challenges Facing Federalism Models of Federalism
    Dual Federalism
    Cooperative Federalism
    Pragmatic Federalism
    Non-Centralized Federalism
    21st-Century Network Approaches to Federalism
    Conditions for Sustainable Federalism
    Conclusion

  3. The New Margins: Sustainability
    Introduction
    Basic Model of Public Policy Innovation
    Infrastructure Renewal
    Water and Waste Systems
    Government Buildings
    Urban Redevelopment
    Resource Management and Development: Energy and the Environment
    Energy Policy
    Core Dimensions of Sustainability
    Environmental Protection Livability
    Eldercare
    Social Capital and Civic Life
    Conclusion

  4. Key Actors and the Policy Process in State and Local Governments
    Introduction
    Political Participation in Postindustrial America
    Interest Groups
    Social Movements
    Citizens
    Initiatives and Referenda
    Media
    Corporations and Economic Interests
    Political Parties and Elections
    Governmental Structures and the Policy Process
    A Review of Policy Models
    Conclusion

  5. State Constitutions Introduction
    Purpose of State Constitutions
    Content of State Constitutions: Diversity and Similarities
    Changing Constitutions
    Legislative Proposal
    Constitutional Initiatives
    Constitutional Convention
    Constitutional Commission
    Role of the Courts
    Constitutional Amendment Trends
    State Constitutions and Sustainability
    The New "Constitutions" of Sustainable Governance
    Conclusion

  6. Legislatures
    Introduction
    State Legislatures
    Representation
    Lawmaking
    Balancing the Power of the Executive
    Variation Among State Legislatures
    Legislatures in General-Purpose Local Government
    County Commissions
    City Councils
    Town Boards
    The Adapted City
    Legislatures in Single-Purpose Local Government
    Special District Boards
    School District Boards
    Legislatures and Sustainability
    Conclusion

  7. Executives
    Introduction
    Governor
    Terms of Office and Eligibility
    Term Limits
    Governor's Office
    Secretary of State
    Attorney General
    State Treasurer
    Superintendent of Public Instruction
    Local Government Executives
    County Commissions
    Special Districts
    Municipal Governments
    Strong Mayor-Council
    Weak Mayor-Council
    Municipal Commission Government
    City Managers
    Executives and Sustainability
    Conclusion

  8. Courts
    Introduction
    State Court Systems
    How State Courts Work
    Trial Courts
    Intermediate Appellate Courts
    Courts of Last Resort
    Problem-Solving Courts
    Judicial Selection
    Partisan and Nonpartisan Elections
    Judicial Appointments and the Merit System
    Current and Future Challenges Facing State and Local Courts
    State and Local Courts and Sustainability
    Conclusion

  9. State and Local Bureaucracy and Administration
    Introduction
    What Is Bureaucracy?
    Moving from Bureaucracy to Administration as a System
    Networks to Somewhere: The Intertwined Process of Administrative Governance
    Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities of the 21st-Century Administrator
    Women and Minorities in Public Administration
    E-Government
    Volunteers, Nonprofits, and Administration
    Historical Trends in State and Local Employment
    Salaries in State and Local Government
    State and Local Employees: Where Do They Work? What Do They Get Paid?
    Administration, Governance, and Innovation
    Bureaucracy and the Core Dimensions of Sustainability
    Sustainable Bureaucracies
    Conclusion

  10. Budgeting and Sustainability Introduction
    Why Do We Budget?
    Generic Budgeting Processes
    Preparation of Estimates
    Executive Budget Compiled and Submitted to Legislative Body
    Legislative Body Deliberations and Budget Approval
    Budget Execution
    Post-Audit
    Sustainable Budgeting and Sources of Revenue
    Sales and Gross Receipts Taxes
    Personal Income Tax
    License Fees
    Corporate Income Taxes
    Severance Taxes
    Revenue: Past and Future
    Federal Grants-in-Aid: A Key Source of Revenue
    Federal Grants for Sustainability and Community Development
    Federal Grants for Transportation
    Federal Grants for Education
    Federal Grants for the Least Advantaged—Public Health and Income Security
    Federal Grants for Children, Families, and Veterans
    Federal Funding for Programs of Hope and Corrections
    State and Local Budget Expenditures
    Budget Reforms
    Sustainable Budget Focus: Five Key Areas of Future State and Local Budget Needs
    Alternative Energy Sources and Energy Conservation
    Climate Change Impacts
    Infrastructure Renewal
    Bio-Equity
    Technology and Innovation
    Budgeting and the Core Dimensions of Sustainability
    Conclusion

  11. Entitlements
    Introduction
    Background and Types of Entitlements
    Meanings of "Entitlement"
    Entitlements and Sustainability
    Public Assistance
    Healthcare
    Medicare and Medicaid
    Medicare
    Medicaid
    State Children's Health Insurance Program (S-CHIP)
    Unemployment Compensation
    Entitlements and the Core Dimensions of Sustainability
    Conclusion

  12. Traditional and Visible Services: Criminal Justice, Education, Transportation, and Emergency Management
    Introduction
    Criminal Justice
    Crime in America
    Remedies
    Education
    Importance of Education
    Politics and Education
    No Child Left Behind Act
    Higher Education
    Higher Education Access
    Higher Education Affordability
    Higher Education Accountability
    Higher Education Technology and Sustainability
    Transportation
    Sustainable Transportation Systems
    Emergency Management
    Emergency Management Strategies
    Political Crisis Preparedness
    Natural Disaster Preparedness
    Health Emergency Preparedness
    Sustainability in Preparedness Efforts
    Conclusion



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