1. According to Benedict, modern civilization is
      a. A necessary pinnacle of human achievement
      b. Not a necessary pinnacle of human achievement
      c. Superior to simpler societies
      d. Normal
  2. According to Benedict, the concept of normality is
      a. Defined the same across cultures
      b. Validated by science
      c. Consistent across time
      d. Culturally defined
  3. According to Benedict, the concept of the normal is a variant of the concept of
      a. The abnormal
      b. The wise
      c. The good
      d. The sane
  4. According to Benedict, the small number of deviants in any society is testament to
      a. The discovery of fundamental sanities
      b. The fact that most people readily take any shape that is presented to them by society
      c. The consistency of values across cultures
      d. Objective morality
  5. According to Rachels, cultural relativism says that
      a. All cultures have the same moral code
      b. There are objective standards in ethics
      c. There is no such thing as universal truth in ethics
      d. Some cultures have better moral codes than others
  6. According to Rachels, the first premise in the cultural differences argument is
      a. Different cultures have the same moral codes
      b. Different cultures have common values
      c. Different cultures see objective moral truth differently
      d. Different cultures have different moral codes
  7. According to Rachels, from the fact that different cultures have different moral codes we cannot conclude that
      a. There is no objective moral truth
      b. Cultures differ
      c. Moral codes exist
      d. Moral codes differ
  8. According to Rachels, the cultural differences argument proves
      a. Its conclusion
      b. Nothing
      c. The existence of relative truth
      d. The existence of objective truth
  9. Glaucon’s story of Gyges’ ring is meant to show that
      a. Given the opportunity, people will always choose justice over injustice
      b. Justice is a myth
      c. All people believe in their hearts that injustice is more profitable than justice
      d. If people could be invisible, they would never do any wrong
  10. Glaucon argues that the unjust life is
      a. Not as good as the just life
      b. Neither better nor worse than the just life
      c. Impossible
      d. Better than the just life
  11. Glaucon says that the perfectly unjust man is one who
      a. Seems unjust but is just
      b. Seems just but is unjust
      c. Appears unjust and is unjust
      d. Appears just and is just
  12. Glaucon tries to show that compared with the seemingly unjust but actually just man, the seemingly just but actually unjust man is
      a. Less happy
      b. Equally happy
      c. Confused
      d. Happier
  13. According to Pojman, personal egoism is a description of
      a. A moral theory
      b. A personality type
      c. Human nature
      d. Altruism
  14. According to Pojman, universal ethical egoism is the theory that everyone ought always to
      a. Serve my best interest
      b. Be selfish
      c. Be egotistical
      d. Serve his or her own self-interest
  15. According to Pojman, Rand’s argument for the virtue of selfishness seems flawed by the fallacy of
      a. Equivocation
      b. Straw man
      c. False dilemma
      d. Division
  16. According to Pojman, the paradox of egoism is that to reach the goal of egoism, one must
      a. Give up altruism
      b. Give up egoism and become an altruist
      c. Follow both Rand and Hobbes
      d. Embrace psychological egoism
  17. According to Aristotle, we always desire happiness
      a. As a means to something else
      b. For its own sake
      c. For the sake of honor
      d. For the sake of pleasure
  18. According to Aristotle, the function of man is
      a. To be alive
      b. Activity of the senses
      c. Activity of the soul in accordance with God’s law
      d. Activity of the soul in accordance with reason
  19. According to Aristotle, moral virtues can best be acquired through
      a. Study
      b. Practice and habit
      c. Physical exertion
      d. Great teachers
  20. According to Aristotle, virtues are
      a. Moral states
      b. Emotions
      c. Faculties
      d. Physical conditions
  21. According to Kant, nothing can be called good without qualification except
      a. Right action
      b. Good consequences
      c. Happiness
      d. A good will
  22. According to Kant, if an action is to have moral worth, it must be done
      a. From a sense of kindness
      b. From a sense of duty
      c. According to custom
      d. With an eye to one’s purpose
  23. According to Kant, when trying to decide whether an action is morally permissible, we must ask if we can consistently will that the maxim of our action should become
      a. A rule for maximizing happiness
      b. A contingent law
      c. A universal law
      d. A rule of thumb
  24. According to Kant, making a lying promise would be wrong because
      a. Lying to people can cause them harm
      b. Lying to people harms society
      c. You could not consistently will that everyone should make lying promises
      d. Most people condemn the practice
  25. According to Mill, to determine whether one pleasure is more valuable than another, we must
      a. Determine which one is objectively most pleasurable
      b. Determine which pleasure most experienced people prefer
      c. Consult philosophers of the past
      d. Consult science
  26. According to Mill, the ultimate end of utilitarianism is an existence as free of pain as possible and as rich as possible in
      a. Lower pleasures
      b. Spiritual attainment
      c. Social achievement
      d. Enjoyments
  27. According to Mill, the Greatest Happiness Principle is
      a. One of several principles of morality
      b. The standard of morality
      c. Endorsed by all the major religions
      d. Embodied in the Ten Commandments
  28. According to Mill, utilitarianism says that right actions are those that produce the greatest happiness for
      a. Each individual
      b. One’s own family
      c. All concerned
      d. Those who deserve it
  29. According to Sartre, what existentialists have in common is that they think that
      a. Essence precedes existence
      b. Objectivity must be a starting point
      c. Existence is a myth
      d. Existence precedes essence
  30. According to Sartre, there is at least one being in whom existence precedes essence, and this being is
      a. God
      b. Man
      c. Primitive man
      d. Future man
  31. According to Sartre, the first principle of existentialism is that
      a. God is dead
      b. Man is all-powerful
      c. Man is nothing else but what he makes of himself
      d. Man is nothing
  32. According to Sartre, if God does not exist,
      a. Everything is permissible
      b. Moral values must come from nature
      c. Moral values still exist
      d. Man does not exist
  33. According to Rachels, the divine command theory says that “morally right” means
      a. Producing the greatest happiness
      b. Self-evidently permissible
      c. Commanded by God
      d. Perceived by God
  34. According to Rachels, if right conduct is right because God commands it, then
      a. Morality is independent of God
      b. God’s commands are arbitrary
      c. Morality existed before God existed
      d. God is not all-powerful
  35. According to Rachels, if good and bad are defined by God’s will, then the notion of God’s goodness
      a. Is coherent
      b. Is deprived of any meaning
      c. Transcends human knowledge
      d. Is a necessary truth
  36. According to Rachels, if God commands us to do certain things because they are right (independent of his will), then
      a. God’s commands are not arbitrary, and the idea of the goodness of God is preserved
      b. God’s commands are immoral
      c. The divine command theory is true
      d. God’s commands are not arbitrary, but the idea of the goodness of God is rendered meaningless
  37. According to Held, virtue ethics emphasizes the character of individuals, but the ethics of care focuses more on
      a. Nurturing connectedness among people
      b. An ethic of justice
      c. Kantian values
      d. Utilitarian concerns
  38. According to Held, the ethics of care
      a. Rejects emotion
      b. Redefines emotion
      c. Values emotion
      d. Is neutral regarding emotion
  39. According to Held, the ethics of care calls into question the
      a. Feelings of individuals
      b. Relationships of dependence
      c. Caring attitude
      d. Abstract rules of the dominant moral theories
  40. According to Held, care is both
      a. A practice and a value
      b. A theory and a rule
      c. A sense of justice and a mode of deliberation
      d. A moral law and a virtue
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