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Table of Contents

  1. What Is Philosophy?
    1. Plato: Socratic Wisdom
    2. Plato: The Allegory of the Cave
    3. John Locke: Of Enthusiasm and the Quest for Truth
    4. Bertrand Russell: The Value of Philosophy
  2. Philosophy of Religion
    1. Thomas Aquinas: The Five Ways
    2. William Lane Craig: The Kalam Cosmological Argument and the Anthropic Principle
    3. Paul Edwards: A Critique of the Cosmological Argument
    4. William Paley: The Watch and the Watchmaker
    5. David Hume: A Critique of the Teleological Argument
    6. St. Anselm and Guanilo: The Ontological Argument
    7. William Rowe: An Analysis of the Ontological Argument
    8. Fyodor Dostoevsky: Why Is There Evil?
    9. B. C. Johnson: Why Doesn't God Intervene to Prevent Evil?
    10. John Hick: There Is a Reason Why God Allows Evil
    11. Blaise Pascal: Yes, Faith Is a Logical Bet
    12. W. K. Clifford: The Ethics of Belief
    13. William James: The Will to Believe
    14. Antony Flew, R. M. Hare, and Basil Mitchell: A Debate on the Rationality of Religious Belief
    15. Alvin Plantinga: Religious Belief Without Evidence
    16. Søren Kierkegaard: Faith and Truth
    17. Michael Martin: Holy Spirit Epistemology
    18. Bertrand Russell: Can Religion Cure Our Troubles?
  3. Knowledge
    1. René Descartes: Cartesian Doubt and the Search for Foundational Knowledge
    2. John Locke: The Empiricist Theory of Knowledge
    3. George Berkeley: An Idealist Theory of Knowledge
    4. David Hume: The Origin of Our Ideas
    5. John Hospers: An Argument Against Skepticism
    6. Bertrand Russell: The Correspondence Theory of Truth
    7. William James: The Pragmatic Theory of Truth
    8. Richard Rorty: Dismantling Truth: Solidarity Versus Objectivity
    9. Daniel Dennett: Postmodernism and Truth
    10. Harvey Siegel: Relativism
    11. David Hume: Skeptical Doubts Concerning the Operations of the Understanding
    12. Wesley C. Salmon: The Problem of Induction
  4. Philosophy of Mind: The Mind-Body Problem
    1. René Descartes: Substance Dualism
    2. Gilbert Ryle: Exorcising Descartes' "Ghost in the Machine"
    3. J. P. Moreland: A Contemporary Defense of Dualism
    4. Paul Churchland: On Functionalism and Materialism
    5. Thomas Nagel: What Is It Like to Be a Bat?
    6. Jerry A. Fodor: The Mind-Body Problem
    7. David Chalmers: Property Dualism
    8. John Searle: Minds, Brains, and Computers
    9. Ned Block: Troubles with Functionalism
    10. John Locke: Our Psychological Properties Define the Self
    11. David Hume: We Have No Substantial Self with Which We Are Identical
    12. Buddhist Scripture: Questions to King Milinda
    13. Plato: Arguments for the Immortality of the Soul
    14. Paul Edwards: An Argument Against Survival: The Dependence of Consciousness on the Brain
    15. John Hick: In Defense of Immortality
  5. Freedom of the Will and Determinism
    1. Baron d'Holbach: We Are Completely Determined
    2. William James: The Dilemma of Determinism
    3. Peter van Inwagen: The Powers of Rational Beings: Freedom of the Will
    4. Roderick M. Chisholm: Human Freedom and the Self
    5. W. T. Stace: Compatibilism
    6. Harry Frankfurt: Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person
    7. David Hume: Liberty and Necessity
    8. Richard Taylor: Fate
  6. Ethics
    1. Ruth Benedict: Morality Is Relative
    2. James Rachels: Morality Is Not Relative
    3. Plato: Why Should I Be Moral? Gyges' Ring and Socrates' Dilemma
    4. Louis P. Pojman: Egoism and Altruism: A Critique of Ayn Rand
    5. Aristotle: The Ethics of Virtue
    6. Virginia Held: The Ethics of Care
    7. Immanuel Kant: The Moral Law
    8. John Stuart Mill: Utilitarianism
    9. Jean-Paul Sartre: Existentialist Ethics
    10. James Rachels: The Divine Command Theory
  7. Political Philosophy
    1. Robert Paul Wolff: In Defense of Anarchism
    2. Thomas Hobbes: The Absolutist Answer: The Justification of the State Is the Security It Affords
    3. John Locke: The Democratic Answer: The Justification of the State Is Its Promotion of Security and Natural Human Rights
    4. John Stuart Mill: A Classical Liberal Answer
    5. John Rawls: The Contemporary Liberal Answer
  8. What Is the Meaning of Life?
    1. Epicurus: Moderate Hedonism
    2. Epictetus: Stoicism: Enchiridion
    3. Albert Camus: Life Is Absurd
    4. Julian Baggini: Living Life Forwards
    5. Louis P. Pojman: Religion Gives Meaning to Life
    6. Thomas Nagel: The Absurd
    7. Bertrand Russell: Reflections on Suffering
  9. Contemporary Moral Problems
    1. Don Marquis: Why Abortion Is Immoral
    2. Mary Anne Warren: On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion
    3. Judith Jarvis Thomson: A Defense of Abortion
    4. Jane English: The Moderate Position: Beyond the Personhood Argument
    5. Burton Leiser: The Death Penalty Is Permissible
    6. Hugo Adam Bedau: No, the Death Penalty Is Not Morally Permissible
    7. Peter Singer: The Case for Animal Liberation
    8. Carl Cohen: The Case Against Animal Rights
    9. Peter Singer: Famine, Affluence, and Morality
    10. Garrett Hardin: Living on a Lifeboat



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