Further Reading

Cumings, Bruce, Dominion from Sea to Sea: Pacific Ascendancy and American Power. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010. Cumings chronicles how the movement westward, from the Midwest to the Pacific, has shaped America’s industrial, technological, military, and global rise to power.

Hunt, Michael H. Ideology and U.S. Foreign Policy. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987. This is an excellent discussion of the influence of racial ideology on foreign policy.

Hoganson, Kristin L. Fighting for American Manhood: How Gender Politics Provoked the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998. Examines U.S. foreign policy in the late nineteenth century through the lens of gender and shows how debates and decisions were shaped by notions of manliness.

Kaplan, Amy, The Anarchy of Empire in the Making of U.S. Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005. Kaplan shows how U.S. imperialism—from “Manifest Destiny” to the “American Century”—has profoundly shaped key elements of American culture at home, and how the struggle for power over foreign peoples and places has disrupted the quest for domestic order.

Kramer, Paul A. The Blood of Government: Race, Empire, the United States, and the Philippines. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006. A transnational history of race and empire that explores the connection between race-making and war in the Philippine-American War.

Lafeber, Walter. The American Age: United States Foreign Policy at Home and Abroad since 1750. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1989. A sweeping look at American foreign policy with especially helpful chapters on the foundations of American “superpowerdom” and the “turning point” of McKinley’s presidency.

Love, Eric Tyrone Lo, Race over Empire: Racism and U.S. Imperialism, 1865–1900. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. From the annexation of Hawaii to the Philippines in 1898, Love demonstrates that the imperialists’ relationship with the racist ideologies of the era was antagonistic, not harmonious.

Musicant, Ivan. Empire By Default: The Spanish-American War and the Dawn of the American Century. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1998. A thorough overview of the Spanish-American War.

Rydell, Robert W. All the World’s A Fair: Visions of Empire at American International Expositions, 1876–1916. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. An engaging look at international expositions in the age of empire, including the 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair and the Philippines Reservation.

Said, Edward, Culture and Imperialism. New York: Vintage Books 1994. Said traces the themes of 19th- and 20th-century Western fiction and contemporary mass media as weapons of conquest and also brilliantly analyzes the rise of oppositional indigenous voices in the literatures of the “colonies.”

Stoler, Laura Anne, Haunted by Empire: Geographies of Intimacy in North American History. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006. The contributors to this innovative collection examine the critical role of “domains of the intimate” in the consolidation of colonial power.

Williams, William Appleman, The Tragedy of American Diplomacy. New York: W.W. Norton, 2009. Williams explores the ways in which ideology and political economy intertwined over time to propel American expansion and empire in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Published by Oxford University Press

Azuma, Eiichiro. Between Two Empires: Race, History, and Transnationalism in Japanese America. This study probes the complexities of prewar Japanese America to show how Japanese in America held an in-between space between the United States and the empire of Japan, between American nationality and Japanese racial identity.

Harris, Susan K. God’s Arbiters: Americans and the Philippines, 1898–1902. The U.S. liberation of the Philippines from Spanish rule in 1898 was hailed as a moral victory. But should the U.S. annex the archipelago? The disputants did agree on one point: that the United States were “God’s arbiters,” a civilizing force with a righteous role to play on the world stage.

Herring, George C. From Colony to Superpower: U.S. Foreign Relations since 1776. Herring illuminates the central importance of foreign relations to the existence and survival of the nation, and highlights its ongoing impact on the lives of ordinary citizens.

Web Sites

The World of 1898: The Spanish-American War. This site contains a collection of documents, sources, a chronology, and a bibliography related to the Spanish-American War.

The Canal Museum. A collection of photos, stories, and documents related to the history of the Panama Canal.

TR—Foreign Affairs. The companion site to the PBS documentary on Theodore Roosevelt contains a rich collection of features, photos, maps, and so on.

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