Size and democracy. Small communities, which tend to be relatively harmonious in economic and ethnic terms, are comparatively advantageous for soft, democratic forms of government, while large-scale units can be efficient for the provision of certain public goods. In the current world, small independent countries and self-governed communities proliferate, thus making the average country size decrease.
Multilevel governance. Multiple levels of government, including local, state, federal and global, are necessary for an efficient provision of public goods at diverse territorial scales.