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Hesiod


Hesiod’s Theogony


Here is the continuous text of Hesiod (based upon substantive excerpts of the most important lines). He begins his Theogony with a hymn to the Muses:

With the Heliconian Muses let us begin to sing, who have as their own Mount Helicon, lofty and holy. Round about the waters of a violet-hued spring they dance on delicate feet, and also round the altar of Zeus, the mighty son of Cronus. After they have bathed their soft skin in the brook, Permessus, or Hippocrene, “The Horse’s Spring,” or the holy Olmeius, at the very peak of Helicon they perform their choral dances, lovely and enticing, with firm and flowing steps. From here they set forth, enveloped and invisible in an impenetrable mist and proceed on their way in the night, singing hymns with exquisite voice in praise of: Zeus, who bears the aegis, and his queen Hera, of Argos, who walks on golden sandals, and bright-eyed Athena, daughter of aegis-bearing Zeus, and Phoebus Apollo, and Artemis, who delights in shooting arrows, and Poseidon, who firmly embraces the earth and violently shakes it, and revered Themis, and Aphrodite, with her seductive eyes, and golden-crowned Hebe, and beautiful Dione, and Leto, and Iapetus, and wily Cronus, and Eos, and great Helius, and bright Selene, and Earth, and great Oceanus, and black Night, and the holy race of the other immortals, who live forever. (1–21)

The Muses teach and inspire Hesiod:

They, the Muses, once taught Hesiod beautiful song, while he was shepherding his flocks on holy Mount Helicon; these goddesses of Olympus, daughters of aegis-bearing Zeus first of all spoke this word to me, “Oh, you shepherds of the fields, base and lowly things, little more than bellies, we know how to tell many falsehoods that seem like truths but we also know, when we so desire, how to utter the absolute truth.” Thus they spoke, the fluent daughters of great Zeus. Plucking a branch, to me they gave a staff of laurel, a wondrous thing, and into me they breathed a divine voice, so that I might celebrate both the things that are to be and the things that were before; and they ordered me to honor, in my song, the race of the blessed gods who exist forever, but always to sing of them themselves, the Muses, both first and last. But enough of this digression about my personal encounter with the Muses amidst the oaks and stones of the mountain. (22–35)

Hesiod begins his hymn to the Muses once again:

You then, come, let us begin with the Muses, who by their song delight the great mind of Zeus on Olympus, as they reveal with harmonious voices, the things that are and the things that are to be and the things that were before. The sweet sound flows from their tireless lips and the household of loud-thundering Zeus, their father, laughs in joy at their song, resounding pure as a lily. The peaks of snowy Olympus and the homes of the gods resound. Pouring forth their divine music, first of all they celebrate in song the revered race of the gods from the very beginning, those whom Gaia and Uranus bore and the deities, givers of good things, who were their offspring. Next they begin by extolling Zeus, father of both gods and men and they end their song with him, praising the extent to which he is pre-eminent among the gods and the greatest in might. And then in turn, singing about the race of human beings and that of the powerful giants, they delight the mind of Zeus on Olympus—these Olympian Muses, daughters of aegis-bearing Zeus, who bring forgetfulness of ills and cessation of sorrows. (36–53)

Mnemosyne (“Memory”), the mistress of Eleutherae on Mount Helicon bore them in Pieria, after mingling with the son of Cronus. For nine nights clever Zeus lay with her, mounting her holy bed, apart from the other immortals. When it was due time, after the seasons had come round and the months had passed and the many days were completed, near the highest peak of snowy Olympus, she gave birth to nine daughters, all of like disposition, with hearts committed to song and minds free from care. There on Olympus they perform their lovely dances and have their beautiful home. By their side also the Charites (“Graces”) and Himeros (“Desire7rdquo;) dwell amidst delightful abundance. From their lips they sing a lovely song, celebrating with praise the privileges and solicitous behavior of all the immortals. (53–67)

After their birth, they went to the top of Olympus with their divine song, delighting in their beautiful voices. And the black earth echoed and reechoed to their singing. A lovely sound rose up from their delicate footsteps, as they returned to their father. He rules as king in heaven, he himself holding the bolt of thunder and glowing lightning, after having conquered with his might his father Cronus. To each of the immortals he distributed privileges fairly and assigned honors equitably. (68–73)

All nine Muses (especially Calliope) inspire kings:

These things then the Muses sang, having their home on Olympus, the nine daughters begotten by great Zeus: Clio and Euterpe and Thalia and Melpomene and Terpsichore and Erato and Polyhymnia and Urania and Calliope. She is the most important of them all because she attends upon revered kings. They pour honeyed dew on the tongue of anyone of the kings cherished by Zeus, whom they, the daughters of great Zeus, honor and look upon favorably at his birth; and from his mouth words flow as sweet as honey. All the people look up to him as he dispenses justice with fair impartiality; and soon speaking with confidence and knowledge he would end even the greatest of disputes. For this very purpose there are wise kings to settle quarrels easily among people who wrong each other in their dealings, by prevailing in the achievement of just retribution with gentle persuasion. As he passes through the city, they greet him with honeyed respect, like a god, and he is conspicuous in any assembly. Such is the nature of the holy gift that the Muses bestow among mortals. (74–93)

From the Muses and Apollo come singers and lyre-players on this earth but kings come from Zeus. Blessed is the one whom the Muses love. Sweet is the sound of the words which flow from his lips. For if anyone has a fresh grief in his soul and his troubled heart is parched with sorrow and then a bard, servant of the Muses, sings a hymn about the glorious accomplishments done by men of old and the blessed gods who have their homes on Olympus, soon the one in distress forgets his woes and does not remember any of his troubles, which have been dispelled so quickly by this gift of song bestowed by the goddesses. (94–103)

Hesiod’s attention to the Muses is steeped in a religious aura of divinely inspired revelation. As he begins genesis, Hesiod invokes the Muses for inspiration.

Hail, daughters of Zeus. Give me enticing song. Celebrate the holy race of the immortal gods existing forever, those who were born from Earth (Ge) and starry Heaven (Uranus) and those from dark Night and those whom the briny Sea (Pontus) nurtured. Tell how in the beginning gods and Earth (Gaia) came into being and rivers and the boundless sea with its raging surf and the shining stars and the wide firmament above and the gods who were born of them, givers of good things, and how they divided up their wealth and how they shared their honors and also how in the first place they occupied Olympus with its many clefts. You Muses, who have your homes on Olympus, reveal these things to me, and tell from the beginning, which of them first came into being. (104–115)

Hesiod goes on to recount the truth that the Muses revealed to him:

Verily, very first of all Chaos came into being, but then Gaia wide-bosomed, secure foundation of all forever, and dark Tartarus in the depth of the broad land and Eros, the most beautiful of all the immortal gods, who loosens the limbs and overcomes judgment and sagacious counsel in the breast of gods and all humans. From Chaos, Erebus [the gloom of Tartarus] and black Night came into being; but from Night were born Aether [the upper atmosphere] and Day, whom Night bore when she became pregnant after mingling in love with Erebus. (116–125)

Gaia first brought forth starry Uranus, equal to herself, so that he might surround and cover her completely and be a secure home for the blessed gods forever. And she brought forth the lofty mountain ranges, charming haunts of the divine nymphs who inhabit the hills and dales. And she also bore, without the sweet union of love, Pontus, the barren deep, with its raging surf. (126–132)

But then Gaia lay with Uranus and bore the deep-eddying Oceanus, and [the Titans, namely] Coeus, and Crius, and Hyperion, and Iapetus, and Theia, and Rhea, and Themis, and Mnemosyne, and golden-crowned Thebe, and lovely Tethys. After them, she brought forth wily Cronus, the youngest and most terrible of her children and he hated his lusty father. (132–138)

Moreover, she bore the Cyclopes, insolent at heart, Brontes (“Thunder”) and Steropes (“Lightning”) and bold Arges (“Bright”), who fashioned and gave to Zeus his bolt of thunder and lightning. They had only one eye, set in the middle of their foreheads but they were like the gods in all other respects. They were given the name Cyclopes (“Orb-eyed”) because one single round eye was set in their foreheads. Might and power and skill were in their works. (139–146)

In turn, Gaia and Uranus were the parents of three other sons, great and unspeakably violent, Cottus, Briareus, and Gyes, arrogant children. A hundred invincible arms and hands sprang out of their shoulders and also from out of their shoulders there grew fifty heads, all supported by their stalwart limbs. Invincible was the powerful strength in these mighty hulks. Of all the children that Gaia and Uranus produced these were the most terrible and they were hated by their father from the very first. (147–156)

The castration of Uranus

As each of his children was born, Uranus hid them all in the depths of Ge and did not allow them to emerge into the light. And he delighted in his wickedness. But huge Earth in her distress groaned within and devised a crafty and evil scheme. At once she created gray adamant and fashioned a great sickle and confided in her dear children. Sorrowing in her heart she urged them as follows: “My children born of a presumptuous father, if you are willing to obey, we shall punish his evil insolence. For, he was the first to devise shameful actions.” (156–166)

Thus she spoke. Fear seized them all and not one answered. But great and wily Cronus took courage and spoke to his dear mother: “I shall undertake and accomplish the deed, since I do not care about our abominable father. For he was the first to devise shameful actions.” (167–172)

Thus he spoke. And huge Earth rejoiced greatly in her heart. She hid him in an ambush and placed in his hands the sickle with jagged teeth and revealed the whole plot to him. Great Uranus came leading on night, and, desirous of love, lay on Ge, spreading himself over her completely. And his son from his ambush reached out with his left hand and in his right he seized hold of the huge sickle with jagged teeth and swiftly cut off the genitals of his own dear father and threw them so that they fell behind him. And they did not fall from his hand in vain. Earth received all the bloody drops that fell and in the course of the seasons bore the strong Erinyes and the mighty giants (shining in their armor and carrying long spears in their hands) and nymphs of ash trees (called Meliae on the wide earth). (173–187)

The birth of Aphrodite:

When first he had cut off the genitals with the adamant and cast them from the land on the swelling sea, they were carried for a long time on the deep. And white foam arose about from the immortal flesh and in it a maiden grew. First she was brought to holy Cythera, and then from there she came to sea-girt Cyprus. And she emerged a dread and beautiful goddess and grass rose under her slender feet. (188–195)

Gods and human beings call her Aphrodite, and the foam-born goddess because she grew amid the foam (aphros), and Cytherea of the beautiful crown because she came to Cythera, and Cyprogenes because she arose in Cyprus washed by the waves. She is called too Philommedes (genital-loving) because she arose from the genitals. Eros attended her and beautiful desire followed her when she was born and when she first went into the company of the gods. From the beginning she has this honor, and among human beings and the immortal gods she wins as her due the whispers of girls, smiles, deceits, sweet pleasure, and the gentle delicacy of love. (195–206)

Hesiod continues with a catalogue of creation beginning with the offspring of Night  (207–452), until he comes to his account of how Cronus united with his sister Rhea, who gave birth to Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, Poseidon, and Zeus. Cronus devoured all these children, except Zeus, as Hesiod goes on to relate:

Great Cronus swallowed his children as each one came from the womb to the knees of their holy mother, with the intent that no other of the illustrious descendants of Uranus should hold kingly power among the immortals. For he learned from Ge and starry Uranus that it was fated that he be overcome by his own child. And so he kept vigilant watch and lying in wait he swallowed his children. (459–467)

A deep and lasting grief took hold of Rhea and when she was about to bring forth Zeus, father of gods and men, then she entreated her own parents, Ge and starry Uranus, to plan with her how she might bring forth her child in secret and how the avenging fury of her father, Uranus, and of her children whom great Cronus of the crooked counsel swallowed, might exact vengeance. And they readily heard their dear daughter and were persuaded, and they counseled her about all that was destined to happen concerning Cronus and his stout-hearted son. And they sent her to the town of Lyctus in the rich land of Crete when she was about to bring forth the youngest of her children, great Zeus. And vast Ge received him from her in wide Crete to nourish and foster. (467–480)

Carrying him from Lyctus, Ge came first through the swift black night to Mt. Dicte. And taking him in her hands she hid him in the deep cave in the depths of the holy earth on the thickly wooded mountain. And she wrapped up a great stone in infant’s coverings and gave it to the son of Uranus, who at that time was the great ruler and king of the gods. Then he took it in his hands, poor wretch, and rammed it down his belly. He did not know in his heart that there was left behind, in the stone’s place, his son unconquered and secure, who was soon to overcome him and drive him from his power and rule among the immortals. (481–491)

Hesiod tells of how Cronus, who increased in strength and power, was beguiled by Gaea to bring up his offspring whom he had swallowed, first vomiting up the stone that he had swallowed last. This stone he placed in Pytho (Delphi), as a wondrous memorial for mortals. Then he continues with Prometheus and his conflict with Zeus, with the human race as the pawn in this gigantic clash of divine wills. He begins with the birth of Prometheus and explains how Prometheus tricked Zeus:

Iapetus led away the girl Clymene, an Oceanid, and they went together in the same bed; and she bore to him a child, stout-hearted Atlas; she also brought forth Menoetius, of very great renown, and devious and clever Prometheus, and Epimetheus, who was faulty in judgment and from the beginning was an evil for mortals who work for their bread. For he was the first to accept from Zeus the virgin woman he had formed. Far-seeing Zeus struck arrogant Menoetius with his smoldering bolts and hurled him down into Erebus because of his presumption and excessive pride. Atlas stands and holds the wide heaven with his head and tireless hands through the force of necessity at the edge of the earth, and in the sight of the clear-voiced Hesperides; this fate Zeus in his wisdom allotted him. (507–520)

And Zeus bound devious and wily Prometheus with hard and inescapable bonds, after driving a shaft through his middle; and roused up a long-winged eagle against him that used to eat his immortal liver. But all the long-winged bird would eat during the whole day would be completely restored in equal measure during the night. Heracles, the mighty son of Alcmena of the lovely ankles, killed it and rid the son of Iapetus from this evil plague and released him from his suffering, not against the will of Olympian Zeus who rules from on high, so that the renown of Theban-born Heracles might be still greater than before on the bountiful earth. Thus he respected his famous son with this token of honor. Although he had been enraged, the mighty son of Cronus gave up the anger that he had held previously because Prometheus had matched his wits against him. (521–534)

For when the gods and mortals quarreled at Mecone, then Prometheus with quick intelligence divided up a great ox and set the pieces out in an attempt to deceive the mind of Zeus. For the one group in the dispute he placed flesh and the rich and fatty innards on the hide and wrapped them all up in the ox’s paunch; for the other group he arranged and set forth with devious art the white bones of the ox, wrapping them up in white fat. (535–541)

Then the father of gods and men spoke to him: “Son of Iapetus, most renowned of all lords, my fine friend, how partisan has been your division of the portions!” Thus Zeus whose wisdom is immortal spoke in derision. Wily Prometheus answered with a gentle smile, as he did not forget his crafty trick. “Most glorious Zeus, greatest of the gods who exist forever, choose whichever of the two your heart in your breast urges.” He spoke with crafty intent. (542–550)

But Zeus whose wisdom is immortal knew and was not unaware of the trick. And he foresaw in his heart evils for mortals, which would be accomplished. He took up in both his hands the white fat, and his mind was enraged, and anger took hold of his heart as he saw the white bones of the ox arranged with crafty art. For this reason the races of human beings on earth burn the white bones for the immortals on the sacrificial altars. (550–557)

Zeus the cloud-gatherer was greatly angered and spoke to him: “Son of Iapetus, my fine friend, who know thoughts that surpass those of everyone, so you have then not yet forgotten your crafty arts.” Thus Zeus whose wisdom is immortal spoke in anger. From this time on he always remembered the deceit and did not give the power of weariless fire out of ash trees to mortals who dwell on the earth. (558–564)

But the noble son of Iapetus tricked him by stealing in a hollow fennel stalk the gleam of weariless fire that is seen from afar. High-thundering Zeus was stung to the depths of his being and angered in his heart as he saw among mortals the gleam of fire seen from afar. (565–569)

Hesiod goes on to describe the dread consequence of Zeus’ anger at Prometheus for his theft of fire, i.e., the creation of Pandora:

Immediately he contrived an evil thing for mortals in recompense for the fire. The renowned lame god, Hephaestus, fashioned out of earth the likeness of a modest maiden according to the will of the son of Cronus. Bright-eyed Athena clothed and arrayed her in silvery garments and with her hands arranged on her head an embroidered veil, wondrous to behold. And Pallas Athena put around her head lovely garlands of budding flowers and greenery. And she placed on her head a golden crown that the renowned lame god himself made, fashioning it with his hands as a favor to his father, Zeus. On it he wrought much intricate detail, wondrous to behold, of the countless animals which the land and the sea nourish; many he fixed on it, amazing creations, like living creatures with voices; and its radiant loveliness shone forth in profusion. (570–584)

When he had fashioned the beautiful evil in recompense for the blessing of fire, he led her out where the other gods and mortals were, exulting in the raiment provided by the gleaming-eyed daughter of a mighty father. Amazement took hold of the immortal gods and mortals as they saw the sheer trick, from which human beings could not escape. For from her is the race of the female sex, the ruinous tribes of women, a great affliction, who live with mortal men, helpmates not in ruinous poverty but in excessive wealth, just as when in overhanging hives bees feed the drones, conspirators in evil works; the bees each day, the whole time to the setting of the sun, are busy and deposit the white honeycombs, but the drones remain within the covered hives and scrape together the toil of others into their own belly. Thus in the same way high-thundering Zeus made women, conspirators in painful works, for mortal men. (585–602)

He also contrived a second evil as recompense for the blessing of fire; whoever flees marriage and the troublesome deeds of women and does not wish to marry comes to ruinous old age destitute of anyone to care for him. He does not lack a livelihood while he is living but, when he has died, distant relatives divide up the inheritance. And again even for the one to whom the fate of acquiring a good and compatible wife in marriage falls as his lot, evil continually contends with good throughout his life. Whoever begets mischievous children lives with a continuous sorrow in his breast; in heart and soul the evil is incurable. Thus it is not possible to go beyond the will of Zeus nor to deceive him. For not even the goodly Prometheus, son of Iapetus, got out from under his heavy wrath and a great bondage held him fast, even though he was very clever. (602–616)

Hesiod has told how Cronus was beguiled into bringing up his children and the stone, which he had been tricked to swallow in place of his son Zeus. When Zeus grew to maturity, he then waged war against his father with his disgorged brothers and sisters as allies: Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon. Allied with him as well were the Hecatonchires and the Cyclopes, for he had released them from the depths of the earth, where their father, Uranus, had imprisoned them. The Hecatonchires were invaluable in hurling stones with their hundred-handed dexterity, and the Cyclopes forged for him his mighty thunder and lightning.

On the other side, allied with Cronus, were the Titans—with the important exception of Themis and her son Prometheus, both of whom allied with Zeus. Atlas, the brother of Prometheus, was an important leader on the side of Cronus.

This battle (the Titanomachy) was of epic proportions, Zeus fighting from Mt. Olympus, Cronus from Mt. Othrys. The struggle is said to have lasted ten years. An excerpt from Hesiod conveys the magnitude and ferocity of the conflict:

The boundless sea echoed terribly, earth resounded with the great roar, wide heaven trembled and groaned, and high Olympus was shaken from its base by the onslaught of the immortals; the quakes came thick and fast and, with the dread din of the endless chase and mighty weapons, reached down to gloomy Tartarus. (678–683)

Thus they hurled their deadly weapons against one another. The cries of both sides as they shouted reached up to starry heaven, for they came together with a great clamor. Then Zeus did not hold back his might any longer, but now immediately his heart was filled with strength and he showed clearly all his force. He came direct from heaven and Olympus hurling perpetual lightning, and the bolts with flashes and thunder flew in succession from his stout hand with a dense whirling of holy flame. Earth, the giver of life, roared, everywhere aflame, and on all sides the vast woods crackled loudly with the fire. The whole of the land boiled, and as well the streams of Ocean, and the barren sea. The hot blast engulfed the earth-born Titans and the endless blaze reached the divine aether; the flashing gleam of the thunder and lightning blinded the eyes even of the mighty. Unspeakable heat possessed Chaos. (684–700)

The sight seen by the eyes and the sound heard by the ears were as if earth and wide heaven above collided; for the din as the gods met one another in strife was as great as the crash that would have arisen if earth were dashed down by heaven falling on her from above. The winds mingled the confusion of tremor, dust, thunder, and the flashing bolts of lightning (the shafts of great Zeus), and carried the noise and the shouts into the midst of both sides. The terrifying clamor of fearful strife arose, and the might of their deeds was shown forth. They attacked one another and fought relentlessly in mighty encounters until the battle was decided. (700–712)

The Hecatonchires (Cottus, Briareus, and Gyes), insatiate of battle, were among the foremost to rouse the bitter strife; they hurled three hundred rocks, one right after another, from their staunch hands and covered the Titans with a cloud of missiles and sent them down far beneath the broad ways of the earth to Tartarus and bound them in harsh bonds, having conquered them with their hands even though they were great of spirit. The distance from earth to gloomy Tartarus is as great as that of heaven from earth. (713–721)

Another threat Zeus had to face came from giants that Earth produced to challenge the new order of the gods, or that had been born when the blood from the mutilation of Uranus fell upon the ground; these monstrous creatures are called Gegeneis, which means “earthborn.”

In this battle (the Gigantomachy), one of the most vicious of the monsters who opposed Zeus was the dragon Typhoeus (or Typhaon or Typhon). He sometimes joins others in their conflict with the gods, or he may do battle alone, as in Hesiod’s account:

When Zeus had driven the Titans from heaven, vast Gaea brought forth the youngest of her children through the love of Tartarus and the agency of golden Aphrodite. The hands of the mighty god were strong in any undertaking and his feet were weariless. From the shoulders of this frightening dragon a hundred snake heads grew, flickering their dark tongues; fire blazed from the eyes under the brows of all the dreadful heads, and the flames burned as he glared. In all the terrible heads voices emitted all kinds of amazing sounds; for at one time he spoke so that the gods understood, at another his cries were those of a proud bull bellowing in his invincible might; sometimes he produced the pitiless roars of a courageous lion, or again his yelps were like those of puppies, wondrous to hear, or at another time he would hiss; and the great mountains resounded in echo. (820–835)

Now on that day of his birth an irremediable deed would have been accomplished and he would have become the ruler of mortals and immortals, if the father of gods and men had not taken swift notice and thundered loudly and fiercely; the earth resounded terribly on all sides and as well the wide heaven above, the sea, the streams of Ocean, and the depths of Tartarus. Great Olympus shook under the immortal feet of the lord as he rose up and earth gave a groan. The burning heat from them both, with the thunder and lightning, scorching winds, and flaming bolts reached down to seize the dark-colored sea. The whole land was aboil and heaven and the deep; and the huge waves surged around and about the shores at the onslaught of the immortals, and a quake began its tremors without ceasing. Hades who rules over the dead below shook, as did the Titans, the allies of Cronus, in the bottom of Tartarus, from the endless din and terrifying struggle. (836–852)

When Zeus had lifted up the weapons of his might, thunder and lightning and the blazing bolts, he leaped down from Olympus and struck, and blasted on all sides the marvelous heads of the terrible monster. When he had flogged him with blows, he hurled him down, maimed, and vast earth gave a groan. A flame flared up from the god as he was hit by the bolts in the glens of the dark craggy mountain where he was struck down. A great part of vast earth was burned by the immense conflagration and melted like tin heated by the craft of artisans in open crucibles, or like iron which although the hardest of all is softened by blazing fire and melts in the divine earth through the craft of Hephaestus. Thus the earth melted in the flame of the blazing fire. And Zeus in the rage of his anger hurled him into broad Tartarus. (853–868)

From Typhoeus arise the winds that blow the mighty rains; but not Notus, Boreas, and Zephyr, who brings good weather, for they are sprung from the gods and a great benefit for mortals. But the others from Typhoeus blow over the sea at random; some fall upon the shadowy deep and do great harm to mortals, raging with their evil blasts. They blow this way and that and scatter ships and destroy sailors. Those who encounter them on the sea have no defense against their evil. Others blowing over the vast blossoming land destroy the lovely works of mortals born on earth, filling them with dust and harsh confusion. (869–880)

And so, after the victory of the Olympians over the Titans, the gods, at the advice of Gaea, urged Zeus to become their king and ruler, and he divided honors and authority among them. The last section of the Theogony is an extended catalogue (with the listings usually brief), beginning with Zeus and his many consorts and their offspring. Here is one of the few more expanded accounts, in which Hesiod tells about the very important birth of Athena.

Zeus, king of the gods, first took as his wife Metis [“wisdom”], who was very wise indeed among both gods and mortals. But when she was about to give birth to the bright-eyed goddess Athena, then Zeus treacherously deceived her with wheedling words and swallowed her down into his belly at the wise instigations of Gaea and starry Uranus. These two gave Zeus this advice so that no other of the eternal gods might rule supreme as king in his place. For Metis was destined to bear exceptional children: first, the keen-eyed maiden Athena, Tritogeneia, the equal of her father in might and good counsel, and then she was to give birth to a son of indomitable spirit who would become the king of both gods and mortals. (886–898)


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