The following is not an example of a philosopher in quest of presence:
a. The Socratic lover experiencing the wondrous vision of Beauty itself.
b. Heidegger seeking the meaning of Being.
c. Derrida deconstructing a text.
d. Descartes searching for something so clear and distinct that it cannot be doubted.
Derrida holds, with Saussure, that language is a system of differences. This means that
a. a word gets its meaning by virtue of its differences from other words.
b. the word “cat” gets its meaning by referring uniquely to a specific cat different from any other.
c. words are anchored securely to the world they are about by being different from it.
d. every language is different from any other.
Derrida calls a word a “trace” because
a. it traces the essential nature of its object.
b. what determines its identity is largely absent from an occasion of its use.
c. we can trace every word back to its origins in antiquity.
d. like the traces that allow a horse to pull the cart, words “pull” thoughts in their train.
“There is nothing outside the text” means that
a. when interpreting a work of literature, we should restrict ourselves to what the author wrote.
b. every part of reality has the structure of différance.
c. when caught up in a fantasy world like the Harry Potter stories, that’s all there is.
d. dissemination of meaning has its limits.
Morality, according to Rorty, is
a. a recognition that in fact cruelty is the worst thing we do.
b. the voice of the deepest part of the self.
c. the sort of thing we don’t do.
d. treating everyone equally and giving equal opportunity to all.
Quine’s holism means that
a. statements about the world can be judged only as a corporate body.
b. total science is like a field of force whose boundary conditions are mathematical.
c. a conflict in the interior of the web of belief will occasion a reassignment of truth values at the periphery.
d. only logical laws are immune from revision.
a. is basically third-person epistemology.
b. is basically first-person epistemology.
c. solves once and for all the skeptical problem of the external world.
d. guarantees the truth of observation sentences.
Taking up Dennett’s Intentional stance toward some object
a. is intending to understand its design and physical behavior.
b. enables us to predict the behavior of even a malfunctioning machine.
c. is incompatible with regarding it as a machine.
d. means treating it as though it were rational and goal-directed.
A functionalist account of mental concepts (believing, intending, desiring, etc.)
a. entails that the mind is a “ghost in a machine.”
b. is incompatible with locating mental phenomena in the brain.
c. allows that a purely physical item might perform the functions.
d. commits one to physical realism.