1. Peirce recommends the method of science for “fixing” belief because it
      a. is more likely than other methods to get us true beliefs.
      b. is the only way we can get certainty about the nature of reality.
      c. is more precise than the others.
      d. attempts to improve our beliefs by testing them against something independent of ourselves.
  2. With respect to Descartes' procedure of methodical doubt, Peirce says,
      a. you can't really do that.
      b. it's a good way to get the deck cleared for some serious intellectual work.
      c. you don't need it to get to Constantinople and back.
      d. it's a good mental exercise and prevents dogmatism and superstition.
  3. As Peirce understands truth, it involves
      a. noting the correspondence between what we say and what is real.
      b. finding out what is real and then matching our beliefs to that.
      c. a community of inquirers.
      d. the absolute certainty of knowledge.
  4. Fallibilism is the doctrine that
      a. we can never know the truth.
      b. the fallible opinions of common sense must be corrected by science.
      c. it is possible that even our firmest views might need revising in the future.
      d. reinforces universal doubt.
  5. In Peirce's theory of meaning,
      a. signs always have a triadic structure.
      b. indexes are conventional signs.
      c. pragmatics deals with the word-world relationship.
      d. each sign must have a meaning independent of the meaning of every other sign, lest an infinite regress ensue.
  6. An operational definition
      a. is restricted to the sort of context found in hospitals.
      b. has an “if-then” structure, mentioning, respectively, results and operations.
      c. specifies meaning in terms of consequences available to anyone.
      d. can get us past the third grade of clearness in ideas.
  7. Dewey's instrumentalism means that
      a. the instruments science uses are necessary to get the results it aims at.
      b. ideas are tools in the service of practical ends.
      c. actions are means to ends.
      d. we may use other people as instruments to gain the satisfaction of our own desires, but only with their consent.
  8. Dewey
      a. agrees with Hume that we ought not to frame hypotheses.
      b. agrees with Locke that the immediate objects of perception are the ideas in our own minds.
      c. agrees with Kant that the world of things in themselves is forever beyond our knowing.
      d. agrees with Peirce that we must give up the quest for certainty.
  9. According to Dewey, values are
      a. subject to appraisal by scientific methods.
      b. not subject to appraisal by scientific methods.
      c. purely subjective and individual, so that we all have our own values.
      d. things we just like.
  10. When we think about value, Dewey says, we must
      a. make the distinction between what is satisfying and what is satisfactory.
      b. admit that valuse are subjective and private.
      c. allow that science can deal with means, but not with ends.
      d. make it a first priority to identify what is good in itself.
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