1. Among the rules of Descartes' method is the following:
      a. Doubt only what you have clear and distinct, conclusive reason for doubting.
      b. Multiply possibilities lest you miss a plausible alternative.
      c. Accept only what an authoritative source reveals.
      d. Make comprehensive reviews.
  2. In the Meditations, Descartes aims to
      a. establish the irrelevance of God to modern physics.
      b. show that the soul is identical with the body.
      c. provide a firm foundation for knowledge.
      d. prove that first philosophy is founded on a mistake.
  3. No matter how hard I try, it is impossible for me to doubt
      a. the truths of geometry.
      b. that God exists.
      c. that I am thinking.
      d. that I have a mother.
  4. The result of Descartes' methodical doubt is that
      a. he knows nothing.
      b. he knows that he is a rational animal.
      c. he doubts his own existence.
      d. he finds something that can indicate a criterion forknowledge.
  5. What Descartes calls the “light of nature”
      a. certifies something as true because it is lighted up as so clear and distinct it cannot be doubted.
      b. is the same as what is “taught by nature.”
      c. is known innately as revealed to us by God.
      d. cannot be relied upon unless it is backed up by extensive argument, going back to simples and moving in small steps to complexes.
  6. Formal reality differs from subjective reality in
      a. not being an idea in our minds.
      b. not having reality merely “for you.”
      c. belonging to God alone.
      d. being a matter of form only.
  7. Descartes’ second proof of God’s existence, in Meditation III,
      a. begins from his certainty about his own existence.
      b. relies on the principle that something can be cause of itself.
      c. is said to be probable, but less than certain in its conclusion.
      d. relies on the principle that past existence causes future existence.
  8. The essence of material things, according to Descartes, is
      a. extendedness.
      b. externality to the mind.
      c. existence.
      d. solidity.
  9. Descartes argues that material things do exist by
      a. pointing out that not only can we see them, but we can touch them as well.
      b. relying on the fact that our senses do not always deceive us.
      c. showing that even if the evil demon deceives us, it still seems to us as though they do exist.
      d. claiming that if they did not exist, God would be adeceiver.
  10. Descartes explains pain in an amputated limb by
      a. appeal to the imagination.
      b. a similarity to dreams.
      c. a pull on nerves that connect the limb to the brain.
      d. the fact that God is not a deceiver.
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