1. In the Aristotle-Ptolemy-Dante picture of the world,
      a. heaven is understood to be quite literally up above us.
      b. space is thought to be infinite.
      c. the sun is located in the very center of the created universe.
      d. human beings are thought to be insignificant in comparison with the glories of the celestial bodies.
  2. Renaissance humanists
      a. intensify the otherworldliness embedded in medieval culture by emphasizing that human perfection is possible only in the life to come.
      b. see clearly that a good human life, as represented in the classics, is incompatible with Christianity.
      c. celebrate the human being as the central fact in all the created world.
      d. tend to be pessimistic about humanity's prospects.
  3. Pico della Mirandola held that
      a. man is “maker and molder” of himself.
      b. God created man with a “fixed abode” and a determinate nature.
      c. human beings are restless until they find their rest in God.
      d. while lacking free will, humans nonetheless can reach perfection.
  4. Martin Luther
      a. speaks of man as “maker and molder” of himself.
      b. upholds the Church as the legitimate interpreter of Scripture, lest chaos result from individual opinions.
      c. leaves the Church, resigning his priesthood in disgust over the selling of indulgences.
      d. stresses the grace of God and the inability of human beings to save themselves.
  5. Montaigne says that
      a. we cannot rely on ancient authorities, such as Aristotle, but science shows us truth.
      b. animal senses are inferior to ours, and cannot show the world as it really is (the way ours do).
      c. man, who could not make a mite, is crazy, making gods by the dozen.
      d. we can reach truth only by correcting appearances with a judicatory instrument.
  6. The new science contrasts with the older medieval view by holding that
      a. everything has its place.
      b. celestial matter is quite different from terrestrial matter.
      c. the universe is infinite in extent.
      d. the center of the universe is elsewhere than on the earth.
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