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Table of Contents

New to this edition
A Word to Instructors
A Word to Students
Acknowledgments

  1. Before Philosophy: Myth in Hesiod and Homer
    Hesiod: War among the Gods
    Homer: Heroes, Gods, and Excellence
  2. Philosophy before Socrates
    Thales: The One as Water
    Anaximander: The One as the Boundless
    Xenophanes: The Gods as Fictions
    Sketch: Pythagoras
    Heraclitus: Oneness in the Logos
    * Profile: The Tao
    Parmenides: Only the One
    Zeno: The Paradoxes of Common Sense
    Atomism: The One and the Many Reconciled
    The Key: An Ambiguity
    The World
    The Soul
    How to Live
  3. The Sophists: Rhetoric and Relativism in Athens
    Democracy
    The Persian Wars
    The Sophists
    Rhetoric
    Relativism
    Physis and Nomos
    Athens and Sparta at War
    Aristophanes and Reaction
  4. Socrates: To Know Oneself
    Character
    Is Socrates a Sophist?
    What Socrates "Knows"
    We Ought to Search for Truth
    Human Excellence Is Knowledge
    All Wrongdoing Is Due to Ignorance
    The Most Important Thing of All is to Care for Your Soul
  5. The Trial and Death of Socrates
    Euthyphro
    Translator's Introduction
    The Dialogue
    Commentary and Questions
    Apology
    Translator's Introduction
    The Dialogue
    Commentary and Questions
    Crito
    Translator's Introduction
    The Dialogue
    Commentary and Questions
    Phaedo (Death Scene)
    Translator's Introduction
    The Dialogue (Selection)
    Commentary and Questions
  6. Plato: Knowing the Real and the Good
    Knowledge and Opinion
    Making the Distinction
    We Do Know Certain Truths
    The Objects of Knowledge
    The Reality of the Forms
    The World and the Forms
    How Forms Are Related to the World
    Lower and Higher Forms
    The Form of the Good
    The Love of Wisdom
    What Wisdom Is
    Love and Wisdom
    The Soul
    The Immortality of the Soul
    The Structure of the Soul
    Morality
    The State
    Problems with the Forms
  7. Aristotle: The Reality of the World
    Aristotle and Plato
    Otherworldliness
    The Objects of Knowledge
    Human Nature
    Relativism and Skepticism
    Ethics
    Logic and Knowledge
    Terms and Statements
    Truth
    Reasons Why: The Syllogism
    Knowing First Principles
    The World
    Nature
    The Four "Becauses"
    Is There Purpose in Nature?
    Teleology
    First Philosophy
    Not Plato's Forms
    What of Mathematics?
    Substance and Form
    Pure Actualities
    God
    The Soul
    Levels of Soul
    Soul and Body
    Nous
    The Good Life
    Happiness
    Virtue or Excellence
    The Role of Reason
    Responsibility
    The Highest Good
  8. Epicureans, Stoics, and Skeptics: Happiness for the Many
    The Epicureans
    The Stoics
    The Skeptics
  9. The Christians: Sin, Salvation, and Love
    Background
    Jesus
    The Meaning of Jesus
  10. Augustine: God and the Soul
    Wisdom, Happiness, and God
    The Interior Teacher
    God and the World
    The Great Chain of Being
    Evil
    Time
    Human Nature and Its Corruption
    Human Nature and Its Restoration
    Augustine on Relativism
    The Two Cities
    Christians and Philosophers
    Reason and Authority
    Intellect and Will
    Augustine on Epicureans and Stoics
  11. Anselm and Aquinas: Existence and Essence in God and the World
    Anselm: On That, Than Which No Greater Can Be Conceived
    Thomas Aquinas: Rethinking Aristotle
    Sketch: Avicenna (Ibn Sina)
    Philosophy and Theology
    Existence and Essence
    Sketch: Averroes (Ibn Rushd)
    From Creation to God
    The Nature of God
    Sketch: Maimonides (Moses Ben Maimon)
    Humans: Their Souls
    Humans: Their Knowledge
    Humans: Their Good
    Ockham and Skeptical Doubts—Again
  12. Moving from Medieval to Modern
    The World God Made for Us
    The Humanists
    Reforming the Church
    Skeptical Thoughts Revived
    Copernicus to Kepler to Galileo: The Great Triple Play
  13. Rene Descartes: Doubting Our Way to Certainty
    The Method
    Meditations: Commentary and Questions
    Meditations on First Philosophy
    Meditation I
    Meditation II
    Meditation III
    Meditation IV
    Meditation V
    Meditation VI
    What Has Descartes Done?
    A New Ideal for Knowledge
    A New Vision of Reality
    Problems
    The Preeminence of Epistemology
  14. Hobbes, Locke, and Berkeley: Materialism and the Beginnings of Empiricism
    Thomas Hobbes: Catching Persons in the Net of the New Science
    Method
    Minds and Motives
    Sketch: Francis Bacon
    The Natural Foundation of Moral Rules
    John Locke: Looking to Experience
    Origin of Ideas
    Idea of Substance
    Idea of the Soul
    Idea of Personal Identity
    Language and Essence
    The Extent of Knowledge
    Of Representative Government
    Of Toleration
    George Berkeley: Ideas into Things
    Abstract Ideas
    Ideas and Things
    God
  15. David Hume: Unmasking the Pretensions of Reason
    How Newton Did It
    To Be the Newton of Human Nature
    The Theory of Ideas
    The Association of Ideas
    Causation: The Very Idea
    The Disappearing Self
    Sketch: The Buddha
    Rescuing Human Freedom
    Is It Reasonable to Believe in God?
    Understanding Morality
    Reason Is Not a Motivator
    The Origins of Moral Judgment
    Is Hume a Skeptic?
  16. Immanuel Kant: Rehabilitating Reason (within Strict Limits)
    Critique
    Judgments
    Geometry, Mathematics, Space, and Time
    Common Sense, Science, and the A Priori Categories
    Sketch: Baruch Spinoza
    Phenomena and Noumena
    Sketch: Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz
    Reasoning and the Ideas of Metaphysics: God, World, and Soul
    The Soul
    The World and the Free Will
    God
    The Ontological Argument
    Reason and Morality
    The Good Will
    The Moral Law
    Sketch: Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    Autonomy
    Freedom
  17. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: Taking History Seriously
    Historical and Intellectual Context
    The French Revolution
    The Romantics
    Epistemology Internalized
    Sketch: Arthur Schopenhauer
    Self and Others
    Stoic and Skeptical Consciousness
    Hegel's Analysis of Christianity
    Reason and Reality: The Theory of Idealism
    Spirit Made Objective: The Social Character of Ethics History and Freedom
  18. Kierkegaard and Marx: Two Ways to "Correct" Hegel Kierkegaard: On Individual Existence
    The Aesthetic
    The Ethical
    The Religious
    The Individual
    Marx: Beyond Alienation and Exploitation
    Alienation, Exploitation, and Private Property Communism
  19. The Utilitarians: Moral Rules and the Happiness of All (Including Women)
    The Classic Utilitarians
    The Rights of Women
  20. Friedrich Nietzsche: The Value of Existence Pessimism and Tragedy
    Good-bye Real World
    The Death of God
    Revaluation of Values
    Master Morality/Slave Morality
    * Profile: Iris Murdoch
    Our Morality
    The Overman
    Affirming Eternal Recurrence
  21. The Pragmatists: Thought and Action Charles Sanders Peirce
    Fixing Belief
    Belief and Doubt
    Truth and Reality
    Meaning
    Signs
    John Dewey
    The Impact of Darwin
    Naturalized Epistemology
    Sketch: William James
    Nature and Natural Science
    Value Naturalized
  22. Ludwig Wittgenstein: Linguistic Analysis and Ordinary Language
    Language and Its Logic
    Sketch: Bertrand Russell
    Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus
    Picturing
    Thought and Language
    Logical Truth
    Saying and Showing
    Setting the Limit to Thought
    Value and the Self
    Good and Evil, Happiness and Unhappiness
    The Unsayable
    • Profile: The Logical Positivists
      Philosophical Investigations
      Philosophical Illusion
      Language-Games
      Naming and Meaning (NEW?)
      Family Resemblances
      The Continuity of Wittgenstein's Thought
    • Profile: Zen
      Our Groundless Certainty
  23. Martin Heidegger: The Meaning of Being
    What Is the Question?
    The Clue
    Phenomenology
    Being-in-the&45#World
    The "Who" of Dasein
    Modes of Disclosure
    Attunement
    Understanding
    Discourse
    Falling-Away
    Idle Talk
    Curiosity
    Ambiguity
    Care
    Truth
    Death
    Conscience, Guilt, and Resoluteness
    Temporality as the Meaning of Care
    The Priority of Being
  24. Simone de Beauvoir: Existentialist, Feminist Ambiguity
    Profile: Jean&45#Paul Sartre
    Ethics
    Woman
  25. Postmodernism and Physical Realism: Derrida, Quine, and Dennett
    Postmodernism
    Deconstruction: Jacques Derrida
    • Profile: Richard Rorty
      Physical Realism
      Science, Common Sense, and Metaphysics: Willard van Orman Quine
      The Matter of Minds: Daniel Dennett
      Afterword
    • Appendix: Writing a Philosophy Paper
      Glossary
      Credits
      Index



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