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Extended Table of Contents

I THEORY AND PRACTICE OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

1. The Practice of Neuropsychological Assessment

The Validity of Neuropsychological Assessment
What Can We Expect of Neuropsychological Assessment at the Beginning of This New Century?

2. Basic Concepts

Examining the Brain
Neuropsychology’s Conceptual Evolution
Concerning Terminology
Dimensions of Behavior
Cognitive Functions
Neuropsychology and the Concept of Intelligence
Receptive Functions
Memory
Expressive Functions
Thinking
Mental Activity Variables

Executive Functions
Personality/Emotionality Variables

3. The Behavioral Geography of the Brain

Brain Pathology and Psychological Function
The Cellular Substrate
The Structure of the Brain
The Hindbrain
The Midbrain
The Forebrain: Diencephalic Structures
The Forebrain: The Cerebrum
The Limbic System

The Cerebral Cortex and Behavior
Lateral Organization
Longitudinal Organization

Functional Organization of the Posterior Cortex
The Occipital Lobes and Their Disorders
The Posterior Association Cortices and Their Disorders
The Temporal Lobes and Their Disorders

The Precentral (Anterior) Cortex: Frontal Lobe Disorders
Precentral Division
Premotor Division
Prefrontal Division

Clinical Limitations of Functional Localization

4. The Rationale of Deficit Measurement

Comparison Standards for Deficit Measurement
Normative Comparison Standards
Individual Comparison Standards

The Measurement of Deficit
Direct Measurement of Deficit
Indirect Measurement of Deficit

The Best Performance Method
The Deficit Measurement Paradigm

5. The Neuropsychological Examination:
Procedures

Conceptual Framework of the Examination
Purposes of the Examination
Examination Questions

Conduct of the Examination
Examination Foundations
Examination Procedures

Procedural Considerations in Neuropsychological Assessment
Testing Issues
Examining Special Populations
Common Assessment Problems with Brain Disorders
Medication

Maximizing the Patient’s Performance Level
Optimal versus Standard Conditions
When Optimal Conditions Are Not Best
Talking to Patients

Constructive Assessment

6. The Neuropsychological Examination: Interpretation

The Nature of Neuropsychological Examination Data
Different Kinds of Examination Data
Quantitative and Qualitative Data
Common Interpretation Errors

Evaluation of Neuropsychological Examination Data
Qualitative Aspects of Examination Behavior
Test Scores
Reporting Scores
Evaluation Issues
Screening Techniques
Pattern Analysis

Integrated Interpretation

7. Neuropathology for Neuropsychologists

Traumatic Brain Injury
Severity Classifications and Outcome Prediction
Neuopathology of TBI
Penetrating Head Injuries
Closed Head Injuries
Closed Head Injury: Nature, Course, and Outcome
Neuropsychological Assessment of TBI Patients
Moderator Variables Affecting Severity of TBI
Less Common Sources of TBI

Cerebrovascular Disorders
Stroke and Related Disorders

Vascular Disorders
Hypertension
Vascular Dementia
Migraine

Epilepsy
Dementing Disorders
Mild Cognitive Impairment

 Degenerative Disorders
Cortical Dementias
Alzheimer’s Disease
Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD)
Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB)

Subcortical Dementias
Movement Disorders
Parkinson’s Disease (PD)
Huntington’s Disease (HD)
Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP)
Comparisons of Progressive Dementias

Other Progressive Disorders of the Central Nervous System in which Neuropsychological Effects May Be Prominent
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

Toxic Conditions
Alcohol-Related Disorders
Street Drugs
Social Drugs
Environmental and Industrial Neurotoxins

Infectious Processes
HIV Infection and AIDS
Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE)
Lyme Disease
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)

Brain Tumors
Primary Brain Tumors
Secondary (Metastatic) Brain Tumors
CNS Symptoms Arising from Brain Tumors
CNS Symptoms Arising from Cancer Treatment

Oxygen Deprivation
Acute Oxygen Deprivation
Chronic Oxygen Deprivation
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Metabolic and Endocrine Disorders
Diabetes Mellitus (DM)
Hypothyroidism (Myxedema)
Liver Disease
Uremia

Nutritional Deficiencies

8. Neurobehavioral Variables and Diagnostic Issues
Lesion Characteristics

Diffuse and Focal Effects
Site and Size of Focal Lesions
Depth of Lesion
Distance Effects
Nature of the Lesion

Time
Nonprogressive Brain Disorders
Progressive Brain Diseases

Subject Variables
Age
Sex Differences
Lateral Asymmetry

Patient Characteristics: Race, Culture, and Ethnicity
The Uses of Race/Ethnicity/Culture Designations
The Language of Assessment

Patient Characteristics: Psychosocial Variables
Premorbid Mental Ability
Education
Premorbid Personality and Social Adjustment

Problems of Differential Diagnosis
Emotional Disturbances and Personality Disorders
Psychotic Disturbances
Depression
Malingering

II A COMPENDIUM OF TESTS AND ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES

9. Orientation and Attention
Orientation

Awareness
Time
Place
Body Orientation
Finger Agnosia
Directional (Right–Left) Orientation
Space

Attention, Processing Speed, And Working Memory
Attentional Capacity
Working Memory
Focused Attention
Processing Speed
Divided Attention
Everyday Attention

10. Perception
Visual Perception

Visual Inattention
Visual Scanning
Color Perception
Visual Recognition
Visual Organization
Visual Interference

Auditory Perception
Auditory Acuity
Auditory Discrimination
Auditory Inattention
Auditory-Verbal Perception
Nonverbal Auditory Reception

Tactile Perception
Tactile Sensation
Tactile Inattention
Tactile Recognition and Discrimination Tests

Olfaction

11. Memory I: Tests
Examining Memory
Verbal Memory

Verbal Automatisms
Supraspan
Words
Story Recall

Visual Memory
Visual Recognition Memory
Visual Recall: Design Reproduction
Visual Learning
Hidden Objects

Tactile Memory
Incidental Learning
Prospective Memory
Remote Memory
Recall of Public Events and Famous Persons
Autobiographic Memory

Forgetting

12. Memory II: Batteries, Paired Memory
Tests, and Questionnaires
Memory Batteries
Paired Memory Tests
Memory Questionnaires

13. Verbal Functions and Language Skills
Aphasia

Aphasia Tests and Batteries
Aphasia Screening
Testing for Auditory Comprehension

Verbal Expression
Naming
Vocabulary
Discourse
Comprehension

Verbal Comprehension
Verbal Academic Skills
Reading
Writing
Spelling
Knowledge Acquisition and Retention

14. Construction
Drawing

Copying
Miscellaneous Copying Tasks
Free Drawing

Assembling and Building
Two-Dimensional Construction
Three-Dimensional Construction

Motor Performance
Examining for Apraxia Neuropsychological Assessment of Motor Functions

15. Concept Formation and Reasoning
Concept Formation

Concept Formation Tests in Verbal Formats
Concept Formation Tests in Visual Formats
Symbol Patterns
Sorting
Sort and Shift

Reasoning
Verbal Reasoning
Reasoning about Visually Presented Material
Mathematical Procedures
Arithmetic Reasoning Problems
Calculations

16. Executive Functions
The Executive Functions

Volition
Planning
Purposive Action
Self-Regulation
Effective Performance
Executive Functions: Wide Range Assessment

17. Neuropsychological Assessment Batteries
Ability and Achievement

Individual Administration
Paper-and-Pencil Administration

Batteries Developed for Neuropsychological Assessment
Batteries for General Use
Batteries Composed of Preexisting Tests

Batteries for Assessing Specific Conditions
HIV+
Schizophrenia
Neurotoxicity
Dementia: Batteries Incorporating Preexisting Tests
Traumatic Brain Injury

Screening Batteries for General Use
Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment Batteries

18. Observational Methods, Rating Scales, and Inventories
The Mental Status Examination
Rating Scales and Inventories
Dementia Evaluation

Mental Status Scales for Dementia Screening and Rating
Mental Status and Observer Rating Scale Combinations
Scales for Rating Observations

Traumatic Brain Injury
Evaluating Severity
Choosing Outcome Measures
Outcome Evaluation
Evaluation of the Psychosocial Consequences of Head Injury

Epilepsy Patient Evaluations
Quality of Life
Psychiatric Symptoms

19. Tests of Personal Adjustment and Emotional Functioning
Objective Tests of Personality and Emotional Status

Depression Scales and Inventories
Anxiety Scales and Inventories
Inventories and Scales Developed for Psychiatric Conditions

Projective Personality Tests
Rorschach Technique
Storytelling Techniques
Drawing Tasks

20. Testing for Response Bias and Malingering
Research Concerns

Examining Response Validity with
Established Tests
Multiple Assessments

Test Batteries and Other Multiple Test Sets
Wechsler Scales

Batteries and Test Sets Developed for Neuropsychological Assessment
Memory Tests
Single Tests
Tests with a Significant Motor Component

Special Techniques to Assess Response Validity
Symptom Validity Testing (SVT)
Forced-Choice Tests
Other Forced-Choice Theme
Other Special Examination Techniques

Self-report Inventories and Questionnaires
Personality and Emotional Status Inventories

Appendix: Test Publishers and Distributors
References
Test Index
Subject Index

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