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Table of Contents

Preface ix

Chapter 1: Moral Reasoning
Ethics and the Moral Domain
Ethics, Law, and Religion
Moral Relativism
Moral Arguments
Argument Basics
The Structure of Moral Arguments
Evaluating Moral Premises
Key Words
Plato: The Ring of Gyges
Louis P. Pojman: The Case Against Moral Relativism
James Rachels: Can Ethics Provide Answers?
Suggestions for Further Reading

Chapter 2: Moral Theories
Why Moral Theories?
Important Moral Theories
Kantian Ethics
Natural Law Theory
Rawls's Contractarianism
Virtue Ethics
The Ethics of Care
Feminist Ethics
Judging Moral Theories
The Moral Criteria of Adequacy
Applying the Criteria
Kants Theory
Key Words
John Stuart Mill: Utilitarianism
Immanuel Kant: Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals
Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics
John Rawls: A Theory of Justice
Annette C. Baier: The Need for More than Justice
Suggestions for Further Reading

Chapter 3: Abortion
Key Terms
Arguments and Readings
1. Warren's Personhood Argument for Abortion
Mary Anne Warren: On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion
Stephen Schwarz: The Being in the Womb Is a Person
Louis P. Pojman: Abortion: A Defense of the Personhood Argument
Don Marquis: Why Abortion Is Immoral
2. Noonan's Personhood-at-Conception Argument Against Abortion
John T. Noonan, Jr.: An Almost Absolute Value in History
Michael Tooley: In Defense of Abortion and Infanticide
Philip Devine: The Scope of the Prohibition
Against Killing
3. Thomson's Self-Defense Argument for Abortion
Judith Jarvis Thomson: A Defense of Abortion
Francis J. Beckwith: Arguments from Bodily
Rights: A Critical Analysis
Suggestions for Further Reading

Chapter 4: Sex and Marriage
Key Terms
Arguments and Readings
4. Goldman's Argument Against
Conventional Sexual Morality
Alan H. Goldman: Plain Sex
Vincent C. Punzo: Morality and Human Sexuality
5. The Abnormality Argument Against Homosexuality
Michael Levin: Why Homosexuality Is Abnormal
Timothy F. Murphy: Homosexuality and Nature
6. The Essentialist Argument Against Gay Marriage
Sam Schulman: Gay Marriage—and Marriage
Jonathan Rauch: For Better or Worse
Suggestions for Further Reading

Chapter 5: Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide
Key Terms
Arguments and Readings
7. The Autonomy Argument for Euthanasia
Daniel Callahan: When Self-Determination Runs Amok
John Lachs: When Abstract Moralizing Runs Amok
Ronald Dworkin, Thomas Nagel, et al.: The Philosophers' Brief
8. The Killing/Letting Die Argument
James Rachels: Active and Passive
Winston Nesbitt: Is Killing No Worse Than Letting Die?
9. The Slippery-Slope Argument Against Euthanasia
Leon R. Kass: Why Doctors Must Not Kill
Dan W. Brock: Voluntary Active Euthanasia
Suggestions for Further Reading

Chapter 6: Genetic Engineering and Cloning
Gene Therapy
Reproductive Cloning
Key Terms
Arguments and Readings
10. The Beneficence Argument for Genetic Enhancement
John Harris: Is Gene Therapy a Form of Eugenics?
Walter Glannon: Genetic Enhancement
11. The Open-Future Argument Against Cloning
Dan W. Brock: Cloning Human Beings: An Assessment of the Ethical Issues Pro and Con
Søren Holm: A Life in the Shadow: One Reason Why We Should Not Clone Humans
Suggestions for Further Reading

Chapter 7: The Death Penalty
Key Terms
Arguments and Readings
12. Kant's Retributivism Argument for the Death Penalty
Igor Primoratz: A Life for a Life
Stephen Nathanson: An Eye for an Eye?
James S. Liebman, et al.: Capital Attrition: Error Rates in Capital Cases, 1973–1995
13. The Discrimination Argument Against the Death Penalty
Paul G. Cassell: Administrative Objections
Bryan Stevenson: Capital Punishment and The Legacy of Racial Bias in America
14. The Deterrence Argument for the Death Penalty
Ernest van den Haag: On Deterrence and the Death Penalty
Hugo Adam Bedau: Capital Punishment and Social Defense
Suggestions for Further Reading

Chapter 8: War, Terrorism, and Torture
Key Terms
Arguments and Readings
15. The Pacifist Argument Against War
Douglas P. Lackey: Pacifism
Jan Narveson: Pacifism: A Philosophical Analysis
16. The Self-Defense Argument for War
Michael Walzer: The Legalist Paradigm
John Howard Yoder: When War Is Unjust: Being Honest in Just-War Thinking
17. The Just War Argument Against Terrorism
Michael Walzer: Terrorism: A Critique of Excuses
Haig Khatchadourian: The Morality of Terrorism
Andrew Valls: Can Terrorism Be Justified?
18. The Ticking Bomb Argument for Torture
Alan M. Dershowitz: The Case for Torturing the Ticking Bomb Terrorist
David Luban: Liberalism, Torture, and the Ticking Bomb
Suggestions for Further Reading

Chapter 9: Pornography
Key Terms
Arguments and Readings
19. The Liberty Argument Against Censorship
John Stuart Mill: On Liberty
Nadine Strossen: Hate Speech and Pornography: Do We Have to Choose Between Freedom of Speech and Equality?
Helen E. Longino: Pornography, Oppression, and Freedom
20. MacKinnon's Harm-to-Women Argument for Censorship
Catharine A. MacKinnon: Pornography, Civil Rights, and Speech
Ronald Dworkin: Women and Pornography
Wendy Kaminer: Feminists Against the First Amendment
Suggestions for Further Reading

Chapter 10: Economic Justice: Health Care
System Failures
What Is Just?
A Right to Health Care
Key Terms
Arguments and Readings
21. Daniels's Argument for a Right to Health Care
Norman Daniels: Is E ere a Right to Health Care and, if so, What Does It Encompass?
Allen E. Buchanan: The Right to a Decent Minimum of Health Care
22. The Argument for Rationing by Moral Worthiness
Brian Smart: Fault and the Allocation of Spare Organs
Carl Cohen et al.: Alcoholics and Liver Transplantation
Suggestions for Further Reading

Chapter 11: Animal Rights and Environmental Duty
Key Terms
Arguments and Readings
23. Singer's "All Animals Are Equal" Argument
Peter Singer: All Animals Are Equal
Carl Cohen: The Case for the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research
Immanuel Kant: Our Duties to Animals
24. Regan's Argument for Animal Rights
Tom Regan: The Case for Animal Rights
Mary Anne Warren: The Rights of the Nonhuman World
Roger Scruton: The Moral Status of Animals
25. The Suffering Argument for Vegetarianism
James Rachels: The Moral Argument for Vegetarianism
R. G. Frey: Moral Vegetarianism and the Argument from Pain and Suffering
26. Taylor's Argument for the Equality of All Life
Paul W. Taylor: The Ethics of Respect for Nature
David Schmidtz: Are All Species Equal?
Albert Schweitzer: Reverence for Life
Suggestions for Further Reading

Chapter 12: Economic Justice and Global Obligations
Key Terms
Arguments and Readings
27. Hardin's Lifeboat Argument Against Aiding the Poor
Garrett Hardin: Living on a Lifeboat
William W. Murdoch and Allan Oaten: A Critique of Lifeboat Ethics
28. Singer's Utilitarian Argument for Aiding the Poor Peter Singer: Famine, Affluence, and Morality
Louis P. Pojman: World Hunger and Population
Suggestions for Further Reading


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