Chapter 11

Chapter Eleven Objectives: Advocacy

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Knowledge (Declarative Knowledge)

By the end of this chapter you should posses declarative knowledge about:
  1. The definition and conceptualization of the construct, advocacy
  2. The distinction between case and class advocacy
  3. The construct of power and how it informs the practice of social work advocacy
  4. The different theory-based orientations to power: conflict theory, empowerment     theory, conflict management, conflict negotiation
  5. How ideology and theories of social justice inform the desired end goals of advocacy
  6. The three parties in case advocacy: the client, the worker, the other side
  7. The three parties in class advocacy: a marginalized population, the change agent    system and the target system (other side)
  8. The two models of case advocacy: the broker model and the adversarial model
  9. The two models of class advocacy: public policy advocacy and human rights     advocacy
  10. The win-lose nature of the process of adversarial case or class advocacy
  11. The serious consequences that can result to either side as an outcome of adversarial      class or class advocacy
  13. The six stages of adversarial case advocacy
  14. The three styles of conflict negotiation
  15. The six elements of principled negotiations
  16. The unbounded nature of social problems and the different time-frame needed for the resolution of social problems
  17. Past and current social policies and the political and organizational dynamics that      affect policy advocacy
  18. The analytic frameworks needed to evaluate public policies and the value frameworks used to determine the desired end goals of proposed or existing public policies  
  19. The role economic systems play in creating and sustaining social problems
  20. Sociological theories that explain the dynamics of social problems
  21. The theories of re-distributive social justice
  22. The role of public opinion and public referendum in the determination of public      policy
  23. The construct of a just society
  24. The dynamics of consciousness raising as a tool of class advocacy
  25. The dynamics and elements of social action (issue campaigns and movements) as a       tool of class advocacy
  26. The dynamics of political social work
  27. The dynamics of institutional oppression and discriminatory practices

Skills (Application of Knowledge-Procedural and Tacit Knowing)

By the end of this chapter should demonstrate beginning competency in case and class advocacy by being able to:
  1. Recognize when there is a need for case or class advocacy
  2. Exercise the skills of broker and adversarial case advocacy
  3.  Exercise the skills of public policy and human rights advocacy
  4.  Be assertive without violating the rights of others
  5. Confront authority; speak truth to power
  6. Invoke sanctions to secure client rights
  7.  Use power, authority and influence to benefit clients
  8.  Be politically adept
  9. Use the least amount of conflict escalation needed to accomplish the objective
  10. Engage in principled and problem-solving negotiations
  11.  Engage in social activism to bring about needed reform and structural change
  12.  Engage in activist research to document needs, gaps in service, discriminatory      practices.
  13.  Use the schemas in this chapter to guide your use of case and class advocacy.


  1. Regard case advocacy as a model of practice having value equal to other social work models and having differential value in its proper or improper application to individuals in need
  2. Regard class advocacy as a model of practice having value equal to other social work models and having differential value in its proper or improper application to populations in need
  3. Integrity
  4. Moral conscience
  5. The courage of your convictions
  6. Belief in principled negotiation and non-violence

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